We come now to the dawning of Civilisation, by which I mean the establishment of agriculture, domestication of animals, the building of cities, and the beginnings of writing. That is not to say that without the above humans did not have culture, but it is with these that humans begin to form even more complex societies and expand their horizons. It is only with writing that we come to history, for history is dependent upon texts even more than artefacts. Our earliest history often consists of the first records of traditions passed down for generations through oral learning.
History, and to a certain extent any social science, is fraught with bias. It is the nature of historians to relate the past in a way which reflects issues of the present. This is something that can be seen from the earliest accounts on. When we come to another culture for study, we must recognise that we are seeing from the outside, often with a great gulf in time to further complicate the matter. That said, and acknowleged, modern social scientists attempt to maintain some form of objectivity. But to be a historian means never to know for sure if one has found truth--at best we can hope for what is most possible. In a sense it is similar to a detective's investigation--but with even more variables. So take what you read with a grain of salt, no matter what the source--but think carefully about the source as well.
The First Cities
University of Memphis Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeology
KMT Magazine (AEgyptian Archaeology)
Greece and the Aegean
Diotima--Gender Studies in the Ancient World
Didaskalia (Ancient Greek Theatre)
The Roman WorldROMARCH--Roman Art & Archaeology
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© 1996 Eilir Rowan. All rights reserved.