Delaware / Abenaki /
Maliseet-Passamaquoddy

 

Ikus Ameriketako hizkuntzen azpi-aurkibidea

Orri honetan, honako hizkuntza algonkinoak ditugu zerrendatuak: Delaware, eta New England eskualdekoak: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy eta Abenaki.

Check the Native American sub-index.
 
In this page, the following Algonquian languages are listed: Delaware, and the ones from New England: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy and Abenaki.


Lenape

Delaware izenarekin ezagutzen den herriaren jatorrizko izena Lenape da. Delaware ibaiaren bailarako jatorrizko biztanleak ziren, New Jersey, Pennsylvania eta New York estatuetako lurraldeetan. Manhattan uhartea eta New York hiria dauden lurrak ere Lenape lurraldeak ziren. Lenapeen artean, azpi-talde zenbait zeuden, hala-nola Unalachtigo (Wënilaxtiku), Unami (Wënami) eta Munsee (Minsi). Lenape hizkuntza algonkinarra da, eta desagertzekotan dago. Kanadan Munsee dialektoan mintzo ziren 7 edo 8 lagun, 400 laguneko talde etnikoan 1991n. EEBBetan, Unami dialektoan, 10 bat hiztun, 2,000 laguneko talde etnikoan 1990ean.
 

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Delaware

The own proper name of the Delaware is Lenape. These were the native inhabitants of much of Delaware valley, in the present states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York. The island of Manhattan and the present soil of New York City was originally Lenape territory. There were several subdivisions among the Lenape, as the Unalachtigo (Wënilaxtiku), Unami (Wënami) and Munsee (Minsi). The Lenape language (of the Algonquian family) is virtually extinct. There were only 7 or 8 speakers of Munsee dialect in Canada, out of a population of 400 in 1991. And only 10 or fewer speakers of Unami dialect in the US, out of a population of 2,000 in 1990.

Ingelesez

Lenape

Assunpink Creek

Ahsën'pink

Conshohocken

Kanshihaking

Delaware River

Mexkilëk

Hocking river, Ohio

Hok'nk Hakki siipu

Kaw River, Kansas

Kansiyaii-sipu

Manayunk / Schuylkill River

Mëneyung

Mononganela River

Mehämämaönke'hälak

Muskingum river, Ohio

Kook'oo's'mk siipu

Passaic

Pahsayek

Passayunk

Pahsayung

Pennypack Creek

Pënëpekw

Schuylkill River / Manayunk

Mëneyung

Six Nations Reserve

Shäweka (1)

Susquehanna River

Siskuwihane

White River, Indiana

Opek Sipu

(1) Munsee name from Canada / Munsee izena; Kanadakoa.


New England

New England eskualdean hitz egiten ziren jatorrizko hizkuntzetatik, denak daude hilak, salbu Maliset-Passamaquoddy eta Abenaki mintzairak (azken hau hiltzekotan). Wampanoag, Massachussets, Natick, Nipmuck, Mohikano, Montauk, Pequot edo Narrangasset jendeak bizi ziren New England hegoaldean, pare bat hizkuntza algonkiar mintzatzen. Mintzaira horiek guztiak hilak dira jada. Azken Mohikanoa izan zen; azken hiztuna, Fidelia Fielding, 1908an hil zen Massachusetsen.

New England

Of the different aboriginal languages of New England, all are extinct except Maliset-Passamaquoddy and Abenaki (this one virtually extinct also). The different Algonquian peoples known as Wampanoag, Massachussets, Natick, Nipmuck, Mohegan, Montauk, Pequot or Narrangasset spoke a couple of distinct languages in southern New England. The last to survive was Mohegan, whose last speaker, Fidelia Fielding, died in 1908 in Massachusets.


Abenaki

Abenaki herria (Abnaki eta Penobscot ere esaten zaie) Algonkinarren taldekoa da. Beren jatorrizko lurrak eremu zabal bat hartzen du: Hegoaldeko Quebec (Kanada), Vermont, New Hampshire eta Maine eta New York estatuetako parteak Estatu Batuetan. Hizkuntza desagertzeko zorian dago: 20 bat hiztun besterik ez dira geratzen, denak Mendebaldeko dialektokoak, 1.800 laguneko talde etniko batean.
 
1600. urtearen inguruan euskaldunen eta Abenakien artean kontaktuak izan zirela dokumentatua dago, eta litekeena da haien artean pidgin euskal-indiar bat erabiltzea.

Abenaki

The Abenaki (also Abnaki and Penobscot) are an Algonquian group. Their homeland encompasses Southern Quebec (Canada), Vermont, New Hampshire and parts of Maine and New York in the U.S. The language is almost extinct, with only 20 speakers of the Western dialect, out of an ethnic population of 1,800.
 

There are documented contacts between Basques and Abenakis around 1600. It is possible that they used a Basque-Indian pidgin to trade.

 

* Kanadan, Quebec eta New Brunswick-en. / * In Canada, in Quebec and New Brunswick.

Mapetan / Map name

Abenaki

Becancour River

Welinaktegw

Bécancour

Wôlinak

Cannibal [River]

Kiwakuai sibo

Gatineau [River]

Madobagoak

Grand Lake

Kchi nebes

Missisquoi

Mazipskwik

Richelieu [River]

Bitawbágwizibo

Saint John River

Olategw


Estatu Batuetan / In the US.

Mapetan / Map name

Abenaki

Aroostook River

Walastegw

Cranberry Lake

M'kazawi nepes

Lake Champlain

Bitawbagok

Lake Clear

Wasabagak

Little Otter Creek

Onegigwtegwiz

Monadnock Mt.

Menonadenak

Racquette Lake

Papolpoga'mak

Saint John River

Olategw

Saranac River

Zalonaktegw

Ticonderoga

Tsitogwihha

Winnepesaukee (Lake )

Winninebesakik

Winooski River

Winozkik



Skicinuwatuwewakon

3,000 Maliseet-Passamaquoddy bizi dira EEBBen (Maine) eta Kanadaren (New Brunswick) mugan, baina hiztun aktiboak 500 besterik ez dira. Maliseet ibai-aldeko azpi-taldea da (jatorrizko formak: Wolastoqiyik, Wolastoqewiyik) , gutxi gora-behera, eta izen hau (edo Malecite) Kanadan erabiltzen da batik bat. Passamaquoddy taldea (jatorrizko formak: Peskotomuhkatik, Peskotomuhkatiyik) kostaldekoa da eta izen hau Maine-n (EEBB) erabiltzen da. Maliseet batzuk badira Quebecen, baina ez dute hizkuntza gorde.
 
Maliseet-Passamaquoddy hizkuntzan toki-izenak beti [-k] atzizkiarekin ematen dira, eta horrek lokatiboa markatzen du normalean. Beraz, "Kelisk" izenak, zuzen itzulita "Calais-en" esan nahi du "Calais" baino zehatzago. Orri hornetan sarrerako taula bat dugu, eta gero Kanada eta EEBBetarako taula bana.

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Maliseet-Passamaquoddy

There are 3,000 Maliseet-Passamaquoddy in the border are between the US and Canada, but only 500 active users of the language. The names Malecite and Maliseet are used in Canada (New Brunswick), and it is, roughly, the "river" subgroup of this people (native forms: Wolastoqiyik, Wolastoqewiyik). Passamaquoddy (native forms: Peskotomuhkatik, Peskotomuhkatiyik) is the coastal branch, and this name is most used in Maine. The term Skicinuwok is used sometimes to name both groups, and the corresponding native name of the language is Skicinuwatuwewakon. Their territory comprises Maine and part of the Maritime Provinces of Canada. There are also Maliseet in Quebec, but all lost the language.
 
The enunciation form of Maliseet-Passamaquoddy placenames is always given with a suffix [-k] that denotes locative case or inanimate verb participles (where...). So, rather than "Calais" by itself, "Kelisk" means "at Calais". We have a introductory table, and then one table each for Canada and the US.

Lurraldea / Territory

Maliseet-Passamaquoddy

Abenaki territory

Waponahkik

England

Tokahmonuhkik

Europe

Okamonuhkik

Micmac territory

Mihkomahkik

Passamaquoddy territory

Peskotomuhkatik / Pestomuhkatik


* Estatu Batuetan (ia izen guztiak Mainekoak) / * US: almost all places in Maine

Mapetan / Map Name

Maliseet-Passamaquoddy

Big Lake

Kci Kuspemok / Amilkesk

Calais

Kelisk

Carlow's Island

Kaluselenk

Dennysville

Kethonsok

Eastport

Muselenk

Ellsworth

Elosuwetk

Indian Island

Panuwapskek

Indian Township

Motahkomikuk / Utenek / Kepcicuwok

Kendalls Head

Wapikonok

Kenduskeag River

Kenotaskiyak

Machias

Moceyisk

Marsh Pond

Kci Peskiyak

Mattawamkeag

Matawamkiyak

Mt. Desert Island

Pesamkuk

Mt. Katahdin

Ktotonok

New Hampshire

Mahqankatik

Pembroke

Punamuhkatik

Perry

Wehqapiqek

Peter Dana Point

Motahkomikuk

Pigeon Hill

Wocuhsisk

Pleasant Point

Sipayik

Princeton

Nolomok

Red Beach

Mehqamkesk

Saco

Sakotiyamkiyak

Saint John River

Wolastokuk

Split Rock

Pessikapskiyak

Washington DC

Wasihtonok

Woodland (Baileyville)

Wapskonikonok


Kanada / Canada.

Mapetan / Map Name

Maliseet-Passamaquoddy

Campobello Island

Epakuwitk / Wapikonok

Caughnawauga / Kahnawake (1)

Kanawak (* Q)

Deer Island

Otuhkelenk

Fredericton

Sitansisk

Grand Manan Island

Monahnuk

Kahnawake (1) / Caughnawauga

Kanawak (* Q)

Kingsclear

Pilick

L'etete

Etolihtik

Mactaquac

Meqtoqek

Meduxnekeag River

Metaksonekiyak

Newfoundland

Oktokomq / Oktokomkuk (*)

Oak Bay

Wehqayik

Oromocto

Wolamuktuk

Pictou

Piktuk (* NS)

Quebec

Kepek (*)

Saint Andrews

Qonasqamkuk

Saint George

Mekikatewik

Saint John

Menahqesk

Saint John River

Wolastokuk

Saint Stephen

Kci Oqassutik

Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupre

Sitank (* Q)

Tadoussac

Tetuhsek

Tobique

Neqotkuk

Welchpool (Campobello Island)

Walamkuk

Welshpool (Deer Island)

Wehqayik

Izen gehienak New Brunswick-ekoak, kenduta * markatuak daudenak, Quebec (Q) eta Nova Scotiakoak (NS). / Most places are in New Brunswick, except those marked [*], Quebec (Q) and Nova Scotia (NS).
(1) Mohawk izena, orain ofiziala. / Name in Mohawk, now official.



Mapak / Maps

Mapak beste leiho batean irekiko zaizkizu.
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Ipar-Amerikako ekialdeko herri Algonkinoak
Algonquian peoples of Northeast America


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