Belgika

Belgium


Belgika

Belgikakoa kontu nahasia da benetan. Politikoki hiru eskualde federatu daude: Brusela, Walonia eta Flandria. Hiru hizkuntz komunitate daude ezagutuak: Frantsesa, holandesa (flandriarrak, noski) eta Alemana. Honek lau hizkuntz eskualde ematen ditu: Holandesa (Flandria osoan), Elebiduna (frantsesa/holandesa) Bruselan; Frantsesa Waloniako parte handienean; eta Alemana Waloniako zati batean. Brusela kenduta, beste eskualdeak elebakarrak dira ia, baina inguru batzuetan gutxiengo eskubideak dituzte flandriarrek, frantsesek eta alemanek. Hortik kanpo, hizkuntz eskubiderik ez, nahiz eta Flandrian osoan zehar egon behar duten frantsesez mintzo direnak (ez dago hizkuntza galdetzerik errolda egitean) Ezagupenik gabeko beste hizkuntz komunitate batzuk: Lorrainera eta Letzëbuerguesch (alemanaren dialektoak), eta Picard and Waloniera (Langue d'Oil delakoak, frantsesaren dialektoak), guztiak Walonian.
 
Egoeraren ikuspegi orokor luze bat idatzi zuen kolaboratzaile batek ingelesez, eta orri honen amaieran dago.

Belgium

Belgium is a complex area. It is a multi-language state divided in three political regions that are federated: Brussels, Wallonia and Flanders. There are three language comunnities recognised: French, Dutch (Flemish, obviously) and German. Four language regions: Dutch area in all of Flanders; bilingual French/Dutch area in Brussels; French area in Wallonia, and German area in Wallonia. Except Brussels, basically the others are officially monolingual, but there are protected minority rights in several areas for French in Flanders, also for Dutch in Wallonia (4 enclaves in Hainaut province) and German in Wallonia (one region, next to the official German area). Other minority language communities with no recognition at all are as present, as Walloon (aone of the Langues d'Oil.
 
A collaborator send us a general overview of the situation written in english, it is just at the end of this page.

Egoera nahasi hau argitzeko, zenbait taula egin ditugu hiru orritan banaturik:
 
1. Brusela eta Flandria (orri hau berau)
  • 1.1. Brusela: Elebiduna frantsesez eta holandesez.
  • 1.2 Flandria: Holandesa; gutxiengoek eskubiderik ez.
  • 1.3. Flandroa: Holandesa + gutxiengo eskubideak frantsesarentzat.
2. Walonia: Frantsesa eta Waloniera
  • 2.1. Walonia: Frantsesa; gutxiengoek eskubiderik ez
  • 2.2. Walonia: Frantsesa + gutxiengo eskubideak holandesarentzat.
  • 2.3. Walonia: Waloniera (eskubiderik gabe).
3. Alemana Walonian.
  • 3.1. Eskualde alemana Walonian.
  • 3.2. Walonia: Frantsesa + gutxiengo eskubideak alemanarentzat..
  • 3.3. Walonia: gutxiengo eskubiderik ez dialekto alemanaren hiztunentzat Luxenburg probintzian.
  • 3.4. Alemana Belgikako eskualde ez alemanetan.
Mapa batzuk ere bai:
Ikus era berean Holandesa (Flandriera) Frantzian.

So, to deal with this complex situation we have put three pages with several tables:
 
1. Brussels and Flanders (this page)
  • 1.1. Brussels: Bilingual in French and Dutch.
  • 1.2 Flanders: Dutch; no linguistic minority rights
  • 1.3. Flanders: Dutch + linguistic minority rights for French speaking
2. Wallonia: French and Walloon
  • 2.1. Wallonia: French; no linguistic minority rights
  • 2.2. Wallonia: French + linguistic minority rights for Dutch speaking
  • 2.3. Wallonia: Walloon (nor recognised).
3. German in Wallonia.
  • 3.1. German region in Wallonia
  • 3.2. Wallonia: French + linguistic minority rights for German speaking
  • 3.3. Wallonia: no linguistic minority rights for German dialect speakers of Luxemburg province
  • 3.4. German in non-german areas of Belgium.
Also some maps:

 

Check also the table for Dutch (Flemish) in France.


Mapak / Maps

Eskualde linguistikoak Belgikan / Linguistic regions in Belgium

1.1.

Brusela

Frantsesa + Holandesa (biak berdinak eskubideetan)

Brussels

French + Dutch (equal)

* Holandesez / *Dutch

*Frantsesez

Oudergem

Auderghem

Sint-Agatha-Berchem

Berchem-Sainte-Agathe

Brussel

Bruxelles

Vorst

Forest

Elsene

Ixelles

Laken

Laeken

Sint-Jans-Molenbeek

Molenbeek-Saint-Jean

Sint-Gillis

Saint-Gilles

Sint-Joost-ten-Node

Saint-Josse-ten-Noode

Schaarbeek

Schaerbeek

Ukkel

Uccle

Watermaal-Bosvoorde

Watermael-Boitsfort

Sint-Lambrechts-Woluwe

Woluwe-Saint-Lambert

Sint-Pieters-Woluwe

Woluwe-Saint-Pierre


1.2.

Flandria

Holandesa; gutxiengoek eskubiderik ez. Duela hamarkada gutxi arte, Flandriako eliteak ere frantsesez mintzo ziren, baina erabat aldatu da hori. Frantsesez mintzo den komunitatearen hondarrak ezkutatuta bezala bizi dira gaur egunean, baina egon behar dute hor nonbait, Flandriarrak Walonian izan behar diren bezala eta alemanak Belgika osoan zehar. Bestetik, ohitura dago Flandriako izenak kanpoan frantsesezko eretan ematekoa, eta hau arbuiatzeko modukoa da, ikuspuntu euskaldun batetik batez ere.

Flanders

Dutch; no linguistic minority rights. There are also (there MUST be), a french speaking minority in the area of Flanders with no recognised rights, as well as Flemish in Wallonia, and Germans all over Belgium. Until recently, elites in Flanders spoke French, but that has changed radically. Nowadays the remains of the french speaking community have a kind of hidden existence. Outside Belgium, Flemish towns are often mentioned in their French names, which is not a good praxis.

* Holandesez / *Dutch

* Frantsesez

Aalst

Alost

Antwerpen

Anvers

Baarle-Hertog

Baerle-Duc

Borgloon

Looz

Brugge

Bruges

De Haan

Le-Coq-sur-Mer

De Klinge

La Clinge

De Panne

La Panne

Dendermonde

Termonde

Diksmuide

Dixmude

Drongen

Tronchiennes

Galmaarden

Gammerages

Gent

Gand

Geraardsbergen

Grammont

Goetsenhoven

Gossoncourt-lez-Tirlemont

Groot-Bijgaarden

Grand-Bigard

Gutschoven

Gossoncourt-lez-Looz

Halle

Hal

Heist-aan-Zee

Heyst-sur-Mer

Herk-de-Stad

Herck-la-Ville

Ieper

Ypres

Jeuk

Goyer

Kester

Castre

Koksijde

Coxyde

Kortrijk

Courtrai

Lauw

Lowaige

Lembeek

Lembecq

Leopoldsburg

Bourg-Léopold

Leuven

Louvain

Lier

Lierre

Lovenjoel

Lovenjoul

Mechelen

Malines

Menen

Menin

Nieuwkerke

Neuve-Eglise

Nieuwpoort

Nieuport

Oostende

Ostende

Oude-God

Vieux-Dieu

Oudenaarde

Audenarde

Roeselare

Roulers

Sint-Agatha-Rode

Rhode-Sainte-Agathe

Sint-Joris-Weert

Weert-Saint-Georges

Sint-Kruis-Winkel

Winkel-Sainte-Croix

Sint-Kwintens-Lennik

Lennick-Saint-Quentin

Sint-Martens-Lennik

Lennick-Saint-Martin

Sint-Niklaas

Saint-Nicolas

Sint-Pieters-Leeuw

Leeuw-Saint-Pierre

Sint-Truiden

Saint-Trond

Temse

Tamise

Tienen

Tirlemont

Tongeren

Tongres

Veurne

Furnes

Vilvoorde

Vilvorde

Vreren

Freres

Wervik

Wervicq

Zoutleeuw

Léau

 

1.3.

Flandria

Holandesa + gutxiengo eskubideak frantsesarentzat.

Frantsesak hizkuntz eskubideak (taalfaciliteiten) ditu, hizkuntzen mugako 12 udalerritan, geografikoki banandutako 9 lurraldetan.

Flanders

Dutch + linguistic minority rights for French speaking

French has minority rights (the so-called "taalfaciliteiten" - "language facilities") in 12 municipalities along the linguistic border. Those municipalities consist of 9 geographically separated territories or enclaves.

* Holandesez / * Dutch

* Frantsesez

Bever

Biévène

Helkijn

Helchin

Kraainem

Crainhem

Moelingen

Mouland

Ronse

Renaix

's Gravenvoeren

Fouron-le-Comte

Sint-Genesius-Rode

Rhode-Saint-Genèse

Sint-Martens-Voeren

Fouron-Saint-Martin

Sint-Pieters-Voeren

Fouron-Saint-Pierre

Spiere

Espierres

Voeren

Fourons

Laguntzaileak / Informers: Wilfried Pieters, Jean-Louis Xhonneux
Eguneratua / Updated: 1997-12-12
Loturak / Links:
* Fourons website
http://www.reocities.com/Paris/5908
 

 
Belgium - General overview
 
written by Albert STASSEN, and submitted by GeoNative collaborator Jean-Louis XHONNEUX from Fourons

 

 
A) Belgium is a complex area. It is a three language state divided in three political regions that are federated: Brussels, Wallonia and Flanders.
 
B) There are three language communnities recognised: French, Dutch (flemisch) and German.
 
C) Four language regions:
- Dutch area in all of Flanders ( 5.600.000 inhabitants in the provinces West and East Flanders, Flemish Brabant, Antwerpen and Limburg )
- Bilingua French-dutch area in Brussels, (19 communes with 1.000.000 inhabitants)
- French area in Wallonia, (3.400.000 inhabitants in the provinces Wallons Brabant, Liège, Hainaut, Namur, Luxembourg.
- German area in Wallonia.( 9 communes with 67.000 inhabitants alongside Germany boundary.)
 
D) Except Brussels, basically the others are officially monolingual, but there are protected minority rights in serveral areas for French in Flanders (all around Brussels: Communes WezembeekÉpem, Kraainem,/Crainhem, Linkebeek Wemmel, Drogenbos, Sint Genesius Rode/Rhode St Genèse. Alongside the linguistic boundary: Mesen, SpiereHelchin/Espierres-Helchin, Ronse/Renaix, Bever/Biévène, Herstappe and the very well-known Voeren/Fourons.) Dutch in Wallonia (allongside the linguistic boundary in Hainaut province: Communes Comines-Warneton /Komen-Waasten, MouscronlMouscroen, Enghien/Edingen. FlobecqMoesberg. ) German in Wallonia ( in the french communes Malmedy,Waimes/Weismes, next to the official German area in Wallonia)
 
E) Other endogenous language communities with no recognition at all are ( in use for theatre, poetry, folklore and regional culture): -In Wallonia:
Romanic language:
- Gaumais(lorrain) (all around Virton)
- Champenois (commune of Vresse Sur Semois) - Walloon ( in East Wallonia ,composed of Walloon Liégeois, Walloon-Gaumais, Walloon-Picard, in the area Liège,Verviers, Namur, Ardennes, Charleroi)
- Picard (in West Wallonia ,area Mons, La Louvière, Tournai, Mouscron)
 
Germanic language:
- Letzebuerguesch(Moselfrankish)(area Arlon) - Ripuarish (communes Amel, Bullingen, Butgenbach, Raeren in the official German area)
- Rhine-Maas Frankish (communes Eupen, Lontzen, Kelmis/La Calamine in the official German area and the communes Plombières, Welkenraedt, Baelen, Aubel in the French area)
 
In Flanders: (germanic languages)
- Rhine-Maas Frankish (commune Voeren/Fourons) - Limburgish (part of province Limburg)
- Brabantish (provinces Flemish Brabant and Antwerpen) - East Flemish (province East Flanders)
- West Flemish (province West Flanders)
 
In Brussels: Popular Brussels language (marollien) (mixing of Brabantish and French)
 
F) Other minority language communities with no recognition at all are ( the voluntarily frenchify bourgeoisie in Flanders towns since 18th century and the exogenous immigration in the three regions, from Belgium and from foreigner) - Until recently, natives elites in Flanders with name " the Fransquillons " spoke French, but that has changed radically. Nowadays the remains of the french speaking community in Flanders towns (Gent, Brugge, Antwerpen, Mechelen, Leuven, Sint-Truiden, Tongeren...) have a kind of hidden existence and is today, with the german community, the most bilingual minority in Belgium.
 
- In Wallonia there is also a flemish speaking minority. From the l9th Century until the 30's there was a big immigration of flemish to the industrila and mining centres and in the agriculture of Wallonia. But they all assimilated very quickly.
 
- In Flanders (Brabant, all around Brussels) there is also, from the 30's there until today, a not assimilated french speaking minority immigration from Brussels .(100.000)
 
- From the 30's until the 70's there was a big immigration of Italian (280.000, 75% in Wall.), Morrocan (105.000, 55% in Brussels), Turkish (63.000, 50% in Flanders), Spanish (58.000, 50% in Brussels)...
 

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