German minorities in Eastern Europe

Gutxiengo alemanak


Germans in Eastern Europe

Before World War II millions of Germans lived in Eastern Europe. Germany itself reached further in the east than now. We present here placenames for those German communities. This is not a call for a restauration of German presence there, neither for a revisionist vision of History. To the contrary, it is quite clear that the brutal domination and oppression of Eastern European peoples by Nazi Germany was, at the end, the responsible for the desintegration and disaparation of the German communities present in those lands. Some of the old communities are history: there may be ethnic Germans living in the Volga region of Russia, for instance, but communities were dismantled. In these cases, our placename lists have historic value. However, other German communities are alive and thriving, as the Germans of Poland, for instance.

We have data about several distinct areas and communities.

  • Germans in Poland (below)
  • The Sudeten Germans, in present day Czech republic. (below)
  • Carpathian Germans of Slovakia (below) and Ukraine
  • German in Hungary (below)
  • Germans of Transylvania and the Banat (Romania) (another page)
  • German in Yugoslavia (Serbia)
  • Old German settlements in Bosnia
  • Germans in Croatia
  • Germans in Slovenia (Gotschee community)
  • The Volga Germans of Russia. (another page)
  • Kaliningrad region (Russia), formerly German. (another page)
  • The Germans of "South Russia": Bessarabia, Odessa, Crimea (present day Moldavia and Ukraine). (another page)

Ther are other German minorities in Western Europe: in Italy, France, Denmark and Belgium. Also language minorities within Germany: Sorbian, Frisian (Eastern and Northern), Danish, Low German.

Alemanak Ekialdeko Europan

Bigarren Mundu Gerra baino lehen milioika aleman bizi ziren Ekialdeko Europan. Alemania bera ekialderago zegoan mapan. Hemen, eskualde horietako alemanek erabilitako toki-izenak dakarzkigu. Ez da hau jarrera errebisionista edo nostalgikoa. Alderantziz, gure ustez, Ekialdeko Europako alemanen gainbeheraren arrazoia Alemaniako Nazi erregimenak eramandako zapalkuntza eta gerran dago. Naziak dira komunitate alemanen deuseztearen erantzule. Egun, komunitate zahar haietarik batzuk historia dira: Errusiako Volgako erregioan, adibidez, beharbada badira aleman batzuk, baina komunitate bizitzarik ez dago jada. Beste toki batzuetan, komunitate alemana bizi da, ordea, beren kultur bizitza eta barne-antolakuntza indartzen eta aberasten, gainera, hala nola Polonian.

Zenbait eskualde eta komunitate desberdinen gainean bildu dugu informazioa.

Mendebaldeko Europan ere badira gutxiengo alemana: Italia, Frantzia, Danimarka eta Belgikan. Ikus, baita ere, Alemania barruko hizkuntz gutxiengoak: Sorbiera, Frisiera (Ekialdekoa eta Iparraldekoa), Daniera, Behe-alemanera.



Germans in Poland

After World War II, the German-Polish border was redrawn. As a result, 3,5 germans were millions expelled from Poland. But many remained in Poland. Now, their number is cacculated from 400.000 to 800.000 people. There are ethnic german representatives in the Polish parliament. Our tables lists places or areas where cultural, linguistic or religious activities have been carried actually in German in Poland since 1989.

Check the notes on spellings below.

Alemanak Polonian

2. Mundu Gerraren ondoren, Alemania eta Poloniaren muga mendebalderago berregin zen. Ondorioz, 3.5 milioi aleman egotzi zituzten Poloniatik, baina asko geratu egin ziren. Gaur egunean, 400.000 edo 800.000 ere izan litezke. Gaur egungo parlamentu poloniarrean ere badu ordezkaritza gutxiengo honek. Gure zerrendan ageri diren tokietan, 1989tik alemanez kultur, erlijio eta gizarte ekintzak egin diren tokiak ageri dira.

Idazkerari dagozkion oharrak ikus behean.


Polish

German

Bydgogoszcz

Bromberg

Bytom

Beuthen

Cieszyn

Teschen

Czestochowa

Tschenstochau

Gdánsk

Danzig

Gliwice

Gleiwitz

Góra Swietej Anny

Annaberg

Gorzów

Landsberg

Gryfino

Greifenhagen

Jemielnica

Himmelwitz

Katowice

Kattowitz

Klodzko

Glatz

Legnica

Liegnitz

Olsztyn

Allenstein

Opole

Oppeln

Pila

Schneidemühl

Pomorze [Pomerania]

Pommern

Racibórz

Ratibor

Szczecin

Stettin

Slask [Silesia]

Schlesien

Swidnica

Schweidnitz

Torun

Thorn

Walbrzych

Waldenburg

Wodzislaw

Loslau

Wroclaw

Breslau

Zdzieszowice

Deschowitz



Germans in Hungary

There are around 200.000 or 220.000 Germans in Hungary nowadays. There are several areas of traditional German settlement in Hungary. For instance, along the Austrian border, in the south along the Danube or in the central Hungarian highlands. Mostly rural population. Our table lists some mayor cities, and villages with traditional German communities.

Check the notes on spellings below.

Alemanak Hungarian

Gaur egunean 200.000 edo 220.000 Aleman daude Hungarian. Zenbait inguru desberdinetan daude beren ohiko komunitateak: Austriako mugaldean, erdialdeko mendialdean edo Danubioko hegoaldeko ibarretan, esate baterako. Gure zerrendan, zenbait hiri, eta komunitate alemanak dituzten herrixka batzuk.

Idazkerari dagozkion oharrak ikus behean.


Hungarian

German

Almásneszmény

Langendorf

Balaton [lakua / lake]

Plattensee

Biatorbágy

Kleinturwall

Buda

Ofen

Budakeszi

Johannistal

Budaörs

Wudersch

Bükösd

Wikisch

Csolnok

Tscholnok

Esztergom

Gran

Györ

Raab

Hegyeshalom

Straßsommerein

Károlyfalva

Karlsdorf

Komárom

Komorn

Lábatlan

Labelard

Levél

Kaltenstein

Mosonmagyaróvár

Ungarisch-Altenburg

Mosonszentjános

Sankt Johann

Nagymaros

Großmarosch

Nyergesújfalu

Sattelneudorf

Paks

Pax an der Donau

Pécs

Fünfkirchen

Pilisvörösvár

Werischwar / Rothenburg

Rajka

Ragendorf

Székesfehérvár

Stuhlweissenburg

Szentendre

Sankt Andra

Tata

Totosch

Törökbalint

Groszturwall

Vác

Waitzen

Zsámbék

Schambek

 

Sudeten Germans

The German presence of Bohemia and Moravia (present day Czech Republic) dates back to the 12th century. Before World War II, in independent Czechoslovakia, Germans were a strong minority there, in the Sudeten region, and those areas were annexed to Nazi Germany, just before war erupted. After the war, the region was again given to Czechoslovakia and most germans were forcibly expelled. However, many remained. Today, the official number of Germans in the Czech republic is 51.000, but german sources put the number in 200.000.

Check the notes on spellings below.

Sudeteetako alemanak

Bohemia eta Moravia (hau da, gaurko Errepublika Txekiarra) aspalditik dira alemanen kokagune (XII. mendetik edo). 2. Mundu Gerra baino lehen, Txekoslovakia independentean, gutxiengo garrantzitsua ziren alemanak, Sudeten izeneko eskualdeetan. Inguru hori Alemania nazian sartu zen juxtu gerra hasi baino lehen. Ondoren, berriz, Txekoslovakiari itzuli zioten, eta aleman gehienak indarrez egotzi zituzten. Asko geratu egin ziren, dena den. Gaurko errolda txekiarrean, 51.000 aleman daude, baina beste iturri batzuek 200.000 ere badirela diote.

Idazkerari dagozkion oharrak ikus behean.


Czech

German

Brno

Brünn

Ceské Budejovice

Budweis

Hradec Králové

Königgrätz

Jihlava

Iglau

Karlovy Vary

Karlsbad

Klatovy

Klattau

Liberec

Reichenberg

Olomouc

Olmütz

Ostrava

Ostrau

Plzen

Pilsen

Praha (1)

Prag

Znojmo

Znaim

(1) Praga hiriburua izan ezik, zerrendatutako hiri guztietan, alemanak nagusi ziren demografikoki 1938. urtean / Except in Prague, the capital, Germans were the majority in all cities listed.



Germans in Slovakia

German settlements in Carpathia (today divided between Slovakia and Ukraine) goes back to the 11th century. In Slovakia, their main settlements were the region of Zips and the city of Pressburg. In 1938, there were about 130,000 Carpathian Germans in Slovakia. After World War II, most were deported. The census of 1991 counted 5.629 germans but the inofficial number ranges about 15.000.

Check the notes on spellings below.

Alemanak Eslovakian

Karpatia eskualdeko alemanen presentzia erdiarotik hona dator. Egun eskualde hori Eslovakia eta Ukrainaren artean zatitzen da. Eslovakian, alemanen kokagune nagusiak Zips eskualdea eta Pressburg hiria ziren. 1983an 130.000 aleman inguru bizi ziren Eslovakian. Gehienak indarrez egotzi zituzten 2. Mundu Gerra amaitu zenean. 1991n, 5.629 azaldu ziren erroldan, baina kanpoko iturriek 15.000 izan daitezkeela diote.

Idazkerari dagozkion oharrak ikus behean.


Slovak

German

Banská Bistrica

Neusohl

Bardejov

Bartfeld

Bratislava

Pressburg

Kezmarok

Käsmarkt

Kosice

Kaschau

Levoca

Leutschau

Poprad

Deutschendorf

Spisská nova ves

Zipser Neudorf

Trnava

Tyrnau



Regarding spellings, we use some conventions as shown in this table below. Check the Glossary of Diacritics to identify distinct accent signs.

Idazkerari dagokionez, beheko taulako egokitzapenak egin ditugu orri honetarako. Ikus zeinu Diakritikoen hiztegia azento bakoitzaren izen ingelesak zer adierazten duen jakiteko.

hizkuntzak / languages

gure tauletan / in our tables

jatorrian / originally

Hungarian

U + circumflex (Û) / O + tilde (õ)

U & O + Double Acute

Slovak / Czech

N S C R Z U Y

N S C R & Z with Caron; U with Ring above

Polish

L / N S C / Z / E A 

L with Slash; N, S & C with Acute; Z with Dot Above; E & A with Ogonek


Mapak / Maps

Mapak beste leiho batean irekiko zaizkizu.
Maps will open in a new window.

Alemanen populazioa Txekian, 1938. urtean
German population in Czechoslovakia, in 1938

Poloniako Silesiako mapa, izen alemanekin
Map of Silesia in Poland, with German names


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