German minorities in the former Soviet Union
Lithuanian in Kaliningrad

Gutxiengo alemanak / Lituaniera Kaliningrad eskualdean


Germans in Eastern Europe

Germans first established in Russia at the 18th century, called by Ekaterina the Tsarina to populate regions in "southern Russia" (present day Ukraine) and the Volga. Another area of present-day Russia were Germans lived is the Kaliningrad region, which was till 1945 part of Eastern Prussia, integral part of the German state. In World War II, the Germans were displaced towards Siberia and Central Asia, and were not allowed to return. Between 1950 and 1994 1.4 million Germans from the Soviet Union emigrated to Germany. However, there are thousands left in Russia.
 
Check the pages from other German minorities, and the index for the former Soviet Union.

Alemanak Errusian

XVIII. mendean kokatu ziren Alemanak Errusian, Ekaterina Tsarinak deituta, eskualde "hutsak" populatzeko. "Hegoaldeko Errusian" (gaurko Ukrainan), eta Volgako ibarrean kokatu ziren. Beste eskualde bat Kaliningrad-ekoa da, zeina Alemaniaren parte izan zen 1945 arte. 2. Mundu Gerran Alemanak egotzi egin zituzten bere ohiko lurretatik Siberiara eta Erdialdeko Asiara. Bestalde, 1950tik 1994ra 1.4 milioi Alemaniara itzuli ziren. Hala ere, milaka gera daitezke Errusian oraindik.

Ikus beste gutxiengo aleman batzuen orrialdeak, eta baita Sobiet Batasuna zenerako azpi-aurkibidea.


Volga Germans

In the Volga region around Samara, were established more than 100 colonies in the 18th century. Germans prospered there, and by 1914, they were 1.6 million people. In the Soviet era, from 1924 to 1941, an autonomous Republic of the Volga Germans existed within the Russian Federation. When war erupted with Nazi Germany, the Republic was abolished, and all Germans were deported. It is possible that ethnic Germans of Russian citizenship may be living in this territory nowadays, but there is not any "living" community,

Check the notes on spellings below.

Volgako Alemanak

Volga ibaiaren ibarrean, Samara inguruan, 100 kolonia baino gehiago ezarri zituzten alemanek XVIII. mendean. Ondo joan zitzaien, eta 1914rako 1.6 milioi lagun ziren han. Garai Sobietarrean, 1924tik 1941ra, Volgako Alemanen Errepublika eratu zen bertan, Errusiako Federazioaren barnean. Baina gerra hasi zen Alemania Naziarekin, eta akabo errepublika. Gainera, aleman guztiak deportatu zituzten. Gaur egunean, baliteke zenbait han bizitzea, baina komunitaterik ez dago, hori seguru.

Idazkerari dagozkion oharrak ikus behean.


Russian

German

Grecinaja Luka

Walter

Ilovlja

Leichtling

Krivojar

Brunnental

Lipovka

Schaefer

Lugovskoe

Wiesenmüller

Niznaja Dobrinka

Dobrinka

Podcinnyj

Kratzke

Rovnoe

Neu Warenburg

Splavnuha

Huck

Talovka

Beideck

Ust'-Grjaznuha

Göbel



Kaliningrad

The region of Kaliningrad is a separate piece of the Russian Federation, lying in the Baltic shore between Poland and Lithuania. Before WW II, this was part of Eastern Prussia, Germany. But after German frontiers were redrawn, Eastern Prussia was divided between Poland and Russia. Almost all germans living there were relocated, but in the late 1980s, ethnic Germans from other parts of the USSR arrived. Today, some 10,000 germans may live there, half of them in Kaliningrad the capital. Before being German, this people was inhabited by Baltic peoples, the Prussians, whose language was extinct long ago, and Lithuanians. Today, Lithuanians are still the 4% of the population of Kaliningrad region (in all, 1 million people); and might be considered an original minority of the area, so we list names in Lithuanian as well.

Check the notes on spellings below.

Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad eskualdea Errusiako Federazioko parte da, baina bereiz dago mapan, Polonia eta Lituania artean, Baltikoko kostaldean. 2. Mundu Gerra baino lehen hau Alemania zen, Ekialdeko Prusia, baina mugak aldatu ziren eta Prusiako pusketa hau Poloniak eta Errusiak partitu zuten. Bertako alemanak egotzi egin zituzteb. 1980etatik aurrera, batzuk itzultzen hasi ziren Sobiet Batasuneko beste eskualde batzuetatik, eta egun 10.000 inguru bizi dira bertan. Bestetik, alemanena baino lehenago, herri baltiarren bizilekua izan zen lur hau: jatorrizko prusiarrak bizi ziren han (hizkuntza aspaldi hil zen) eta Lituaniarrak ere bai. Gaur egun, lituaniarrak eskualdeko %4 dira, milioi bat laguneko populazioan, eta jatorrizko gutxiengo gisa trataturik, beren toki-izenak ere sartu ditugu gure taulan.

Idazkerari dagozkion oharrak ikus behean.


Errusieraz

Lituanieraz

Alemanez

Bagrationovsk

Yluva / Ylava

Preußisch Eylau

Baltijsk

Piliava

Pillau

Cerniachovsk

Ásrutis

Insterburg

Dobrovolsk

Pilkalnis

Pillkallen / Schloßberg

Domnovo

Dumnava

Domnau

Gurjevsk

Noihauzenas

Neuhausen

Gusev

Gumbinë

Gumbinnen

Gvardejsk

Tepliava / Tepliuva

Tapiau

Jantarnyj

Palvininkai / Palmininkai

Palmnicken

Jasnoje

Kaukiemis / Kaukënai

Kaukehmen / Kuckerneese

Kaliningrad

Karaliaucius / Tvangstë / Tvangystë

Königsberg

Kornevo

Cintai

Zinten

Krasnoznamensk

Lazdënai / Lazdynai

Lazdehnen / Haselberg

Lugovoje

Bildvieciai / Bilvieciai

Bilderweitschen / Bilderweiten

Mamonovo

Sventapilis / Sventapilë

Heiligenbeil

Neman

Ragainë

Raganita / Ragnit

Nesterov

Stalupënai

Stallupöhnen / Stalluponen / Ebenrode

Ozersk

Darkiemis

Darkehmen

Pionerskij

N. Kursiai

Neukuhren

Polessk

Labguva / Labegovë

Labiau

Pravdinsk

Frydlandas / Romuva

Friedland

Primorje

D. Kursiai

Gr. Kuhren

Primorsk

Zuvininkai / Skanavikas

Fischhausen

Rybacij

Rasytë

Rossitten

S<ossejnoe

Vartai / Varciai

Warthen

Slavsk

Gastos

Gassen / Henrichswalde

Sovetsk

Tilzë

Tilsit

Svetlogorsk

Rausiai / Rûsiai

Rauschen

Svetlyj

Cimerbûdë

Zimmerbude

Z<eleznodoroznyj

Girdava / Girduva

Gerdauen

Zelenogradsk

Krantas / Krancas

Cranz

Znamensk

Vëluva / Vëliava

Wehlau



Germans in Ukraine

There are several areas of Ukraine where German settlements were established. In southern Ukraine, along Bessarabia, Odessa and Crimea, there were the "southern Russian" colonies, as when they were founded, that was the south of the Russian empire. There were also colonies in Volhynia region, in northwestern Ukraine. In Trans-Carpathia and northern Bukovina, in Western Ukraine, there was also German presence, dating back to the Middle Ages. In this area, there is still a residual German population of some 2.000 people.

Check the notes on spellings below.

Ukrainako alemanak

Ukraine German settlements were established. In southern Ukraine, along Bessarabia, Odessa and Crimea, there were the "southern Russian" colonies, as when they were founded, that was the south of the Russian empire. There were also colonies in Volhynia region, in northwestern Ukraine. In Trans-Carpathia and northern Bukovina, in Western Ukraine, there was also German presence, dating back to the Middle Ages. In this area, there is still a residual German population of some 2.000 people.

Idazkerari dagozkion oharrak ikus behean.


Errusieraz

Ukrainieraz

Alemanez

Arciz

Arcyz

Arzis

Bel'ajevka

Biljajivka

Friedenheim

Berezino

Berezyne

Beresina

Borodino

Borodino

Borodino

Kucurgan

Kucurhan

Strassburg

Limanskoe

Lymans'ke

Selz

Mardarovka

Mardarivka

Helenendorf

Serpnevoe

Serpneve

Leipzig

Tarutino

Tarutyno

Tarutino



Regarding spellings, we use some conventions as shown in this table below. Check the Glossary of Diacritics to identify distinct accent signs.

Idazkerari dagokionez, beheko taulako egokitzapenak egin ditugu orri honetarako. Ikus zeinu Diakritikoen hiztegia azento bakoitzaren izen ingelesak zer adierazten duen jakiteko.

hizkuntzak / languages

gure tauletan / in our tables

jatorrian / originally

Lithuanian

S C Z / Ë / Û

S C & Z with Caron; E with dot above; U with macron


Names in Russian and Lithuanian appear transliterated from their ciryllic scripts here, following international standards, with some additional conventions used in GeoNative, as it is shown below:

Ukrainerazko eta errusierazko izenak alfabeto zirilikortik transliteratuak ageri dira hemen, nazioarteko estandarren arabera (GeoNativerako hartutako konbentzio batzuekin), jarraian ageri den bezala:



Mapak / Maps

Mapak beste leiho batean irekiko zaizkizu.
Maps will open in a new window.

Ukraina hegoaldeko kolonia aleman zahar batzuk: Kutxurganeko kolonia katolikoak
Catholic German colonies of Kutschurgan, part of the colonies in southern Ukraine

Volgako errepublika zaharreko mapa aleman bat
An old German map of the Volga republic area

Kaliningrad eskualdearen kokapena
Location of Kaliningrad area


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