Australia

Aboriginal Languages


Australia

There were 17.7 million people in Australia in 1995. 170,000 or about 1% of the population is of Aboriginal descent, of whom 47,000 have some knowledge of an Aboriginal language. At time of contact, some 200 languages were spoken. Now only 100 or so remain and most of them very endangered. Aboriginal languages were traditionally spoken by relatively small groups, but each had its territory, culture and transmission assured. Europeans arrived, occupied the territories, massacred the people, and almost destroyed aboriginal cultures. So, it is like a miracle that some languages still survive. Regarding placenames, of the current placenames you see in a map, many are just European impositions put over original aboriginal names, and many others of Aboriginal-looking shape are phonetic renderings of Aboriginal names "as heard" by the invaders. As examples, we list by now placenames for the following languages: Guugu Yimithirr, Dyirbal, Gooniyandi, Arabana-Wangkangurru, Yagara and Yugambeh.

Australia

Australia: 17,7 milioi biztanle 1995ean. Horietarik %1 edo (170.000 lagun), jatorrizko Aborigeneak, eta hauen artean, jatorrizko hizkuntzaren baten jabe direnak 47.000 omen. Europarrak iritsi zirenean hara, duela 200 bat urte, 200 hizkuntza mintzatuko ziren. Dagoeneko erdiak hil dira, eta beste guztiak daude arriskuan. Hizkuntza australiarrek beti izan zituzten hiztun gutxi, baina talde bakoitzak bere lurra, kultura eta transmisio bideak finkatuta zeuzkan. Europarrak iritsi ziren ordea, eta lurrak okupatu zituzten, kulturak suntsitu, aborigeneak milaka hil eta transmisio bideak eten. Hizkuntza batzuk bizirik badaude oraindik, mirarizkoa dirudi. Toki-izenei dagokienez, mapan ageri direnetarik asko europarrek inposatutakoak dira, eta beste asko itxura aborgienekoak. Horietarik gehienak hurbilpen fonetikoak dira, Europarren belarrien kapritxoa askotan, benetako jatorrizko izena baino gehiago. Adibide gisa, oraingoz hemen leku-izenekin zerrendaturik ditugun hizkuntzak: Guugu Yimithirr, Dyirbal, Gooniyandi, Arabana-Wangkangurru, Yagara eta Yugambeh.



Arabana-Wangkangurru

In the 80s, there were left only 8 speakers in the Arabana tribe, and other 8 among the Wangkangurru. These two groups lived around Lake Eyre, in the northern part of South Australia, occupying wide desertical areas. They are to be considered distinct ethnic groups, but they spoke dialects of the same language, or very close languages.

Arabana-Wangkangurru

1980ko hamarkadan zortzina hiztun geratzen ziren Arabana eta Wangkangurru herrietan. Bi talde hauek bizi ziren Eyre lakuaren inguruan, basamortuko lur zabalak okupatzen Hego Australia probintziako iparraldean. Bi talde etniko desberdin, baina hizkuntza bereko dialektoak mintzatzen zituzten.


Mapetan / Map name

Arabana-Wangkangurru

Algebuckina

Ariltyipaka

Altarkuwa

Altharka

Anna Creek

Wanyiwanyi

Arabana

Arabana

Bicherinna

Pityirri

Burraburrina

Parraparra

Cooncherie

Kuntyiri

Coongie

Kungki

Cooreappa

Kuriyapa

Coward Springs

Pitha-kalti-kalti

Dalhousie

Wityira

Diamantina

Marlupapu

Erebena [putzua / waterhole]

Aripanha

Hookey's Waterhole [putzua / waterhole]

Uthapuka

Horseshoe Bend

Ingkurdna

Kunowana

Kudnangawa

Lake Eyre

Katithanda

Lloyd's Bore

Pinthamarrarnda

Mirrabuckina

Mirripaka

Mount Arthur

Pakalta

Mount Midlargunna

Midlaraku

Mount Robinson

Yaltya-wati

Mount Tidnabakina

Thidnapakanha

Mulga Creek

Wardyiti / Wardyiti-karla

Mungeranie

Mangurani

Nardiebuckina

Ngardupaka

Nilpinna

Nhilpanha

North Well

Tharrityinityinha

Peake

Yardiya

Pups Lagoon

Mangu-miRaka

Simpson Desert

Mikiri

Smithfield

Medlarda

Taranga [putzua / waterhole]

Marni

Tuppanna

Thapa

Wodmara Creek

Wutmara

Wood Duck Station

Thundritha

Wood Duck [putzua / waterhole]

Thunthripa



Guugu Yimithirr

Guugu Yimithirr herria bizi zen Queensland iparraldean, Australian, Cook Kapitainak lur hartan oina lehenbizikoz jarri zuen tokian. Beraz, hizkuntza hau izan zen Australian zuriek entzun zuten legena. Oraingo Guugu Yimithirr jendea Hopevale deritzon tokian bizi dira, eta hiztunak 100 inguru izan litezke. Gure zerrendako izenak dira eremu tradizionalen izenak, non kolonialistek izendatutako tokiak ageri diren mapetan.

Guugu Yimithirr

The Guugu Yimithirr people lived in Northern Queensland, in an area northwest of Cooktown, where Captain Cook first landed in Australia and first met an aboriginal language. So, the first aboriginal language they heard was Guugu Yimithirr. The remaining Guugu Yimithirr live now in Hopevale, and there around 100 speakers of the language left. Names correspond to traditional areas where the features named by colonialists appear in maps.


Mapetan / * Map name

Guugu Yimithirr

Battle Camp

Balnggarr

Cape Bedford

Dhiidhaarr

Cape Flattery

Yuuru

Cooktown

Waymbuurr

Hopevale

Dyuubi

Jeannie River

Yalmba

McIvor River (mouth)

Gulaal / Ngaadha

Stancke River (mouth)

Munbarr / Mangaar



Gooniyandi

Some 100 people still speak Gooniyandi in the Southern Kimberley region of Western Australia.

 

Gooniyandi

Ehun bat lagun mintzo da oraindik Gooniyandi hizkuntzan Kimberley eskualdearen hegoaldean, Mendebaldeko Australian.


Mapetan / Map Name

Gooniyandi

Bulga Swamp

Boolga

Geikie Gorge

Danggoo

Gogo

Bamathidi

Mable Downs

Mayibil Dawoon

Mulurrja

Moolooddja

Pinnacles

Ngumban

Yiyili

Yiyili



Dyirbal

Dyirbal was a language shared by several groups of Northern Queensland, south of Cairns, in the rain forests of the area. Each group had its dialect and its own name for themselves and the language, so there was no "unitary" language name. These are the dialects and the tribes (between brackets) that spoke them: Mamu (Waribara, Dulgubara, Bagirgabara, Dyiribara, Mandubara), Dyirbal (Dyirbalngam), Giramay (Giramaygan), Gulngay (Malambara), Dyiru (Dyirubagala), Ngadyan (Ngadyandyi). In 1983 there were left some 40 or 50 speakers of the "central" Dyirbal dialect, and some 30 speakers of the other varieries.

Dyirbal

Dyirbal izenarekin dialekto multzo zabal bat izendatzen da: talde askoren mintzairak, Queensland iparraldean, Cairns hiritik hegoaldera, inguruko oihan hezeetan. Hauek dira dialekto haiek (eta bakoitzarentzako talde etnikoak parentesi artean): Mamu (Waribara, Dulgubara, Bagirgabara, Dyiribara, Mandubara), Dyirbal (Dyirbalngam), Giramay (Giramaygan), Gulngay (Malambara), Dyiru (Dyirubagala), Ngadyan (Ngadyandyi). Dyirbal dialekto "zentralari" 40 edo 50 hiztun geratzen zitzaizkion 1983an, eta beste 30 bat hiztun, gainerako guztietako apurrak batuta.

 


Mapetan / Map name

Dyirbal

Cardwell

Bala Milbirmi

Hinchinbrook Channel

Balan Milbirmi

Tully

Bala Dali

Tully Falls

Balan Gariya

Tully River

Balan Dabun



Yagara / Yugambeh

The areas occupied by the present-day big Australian cities is where Aboriginal cultures were first wiped out. One example: in what is nowadays Brisbane the Yagara (or Jagara) people lived, and just south of them was Yugambeh territory. Now, little remains of them, only a few people descending from those whose culture was savagely destroyed. Both languages are extinct.

Yagara / Yugambeh

Gaur egungo Australiako hiri handiek okupatzen duten terrenoak eta haien inguruak izan ziren Aborigenen kulturak lehenbizi ezabatu zituzten lurraldeak. Adibide bat: gaur egun Brisbanek okupatzen duen inguru metropolitanoan lehen Yagara herria eta, hegoalderago, Yugambeh herria bizi ziren. Gaur ez da haien kulturatik ia ezer gelditzen, eta hizkuntzak hilak daude.


Mapetan / Map name

Yagara

Brisbane

Miangin

Indooroopily

Milbarpa

Long Pocket

Tuwong

Mount Coottha

Kuta

Mount Gravatt

Kaggar-Mabul

New Form

Binkinba

Toowong

Banera

White's Hill

Bulimba


Mapetan / Map name

Yugambeh

Ballina

Baluna

Bird Island

Mabinbila

Coomera

Kumar / Kamir-Kamir

Garden Island

Dandiba

Land's End

Warudhar

Loder´s Creek

Bigargah

McIntosh Island

Jiji

McPherson Range

Bangbang

Mt Barney

Baga-Bagah

Mt Durigan

Darigan

Mt Ladybrook

Kundulbunbi

Mt Lindesay

Jalgambuny

Mt Maroon

Munin

Mt Stapylton

Buginba

Mt Tamborine

Wangalbung

Mt Warning

Wulambiny

Mud Island

Bamgahmba

Mudgeereba

Madhirbah

Nerang creek

Ngunbih

Nerang township

Birbi

Russell Island

Kanaybah

Turranba

Diranybah

Tweed River

Kugay

Ukerabagh Island

Yugirbah

Yabbra State Forest

Yabara


Mapak / Maps

Mapak beste leiho batean irekiko zaizkizu.
Maps will open in a new window.

Aborigenen hizkuntzen kokapena Mendebaldeko Australian (atalka)
Location of Aboriginal language in at least one part of Australia (Western Australia), by sections.



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