Tibet

 


Tibet

Txinak 1949an okupatu zuen Tibet, eta gaur egunean Estatu honen barruan Tibet izeneko euskalde ustez autonomo bat dago. Hala ere, Han etniako txinatarrek agintzen dute, ez tibetarrek. Gainera, Tibet historikoak beste eskualde batzuk hartzen ditu Gansu, Qinghai, eta Sichuan probintzietan (ikus mapak). Tibet osoan orain 6 milioi tibetar bizi dira, exilioko iturrien arabera, baina Han txinatarrak gehiago dira jada kolonizazioaren ondorioz (7 milioi)

Tibet

China occupied Tibet in 1949. Nowadays there is a province called Autonomous Tibet, but it is ruled by Han Chinese, not Tibetans. Historic Tibet also comprises other areas of Gansu, Qinghai, and Sichuan provinces (see maps). According to exile sources, there are 6 million tibetans now in Tibet, outnumbered by Han colonization (7 million).

 

 
Transliterazioez:
  • Pinyin Txinako transliterazio sistema ofiziala da, mundu osoan erabilyzen dena. Era berean, Tibeteko izen "natibo" batzuk Pinyinaren bidez latinizatu dituzte txinatarrek.
  • Putonghua is beste estandar bat da. Txinerazko marka tonalak gehitu ditugu zenbakiak gehituz, ezin baititugu zeinuak HTMLz adierazi.
  • Tibetera transliteratu dugu ingelesezko ohiko eran, kontsonante multzo osoak gordez (ez da hori benetako ahoskera).
  • Kortxete artean [] nazioarteko izen batzuk gehitu ditugu monasterio, ibai eta mendientzat.

Notes on language:
  • Chinese Pinyin is the official Chinese spelling according to the Pinyin romanization system. This includes "native" romanized forms of Tibetan names.
  • Chinese Putonghua is standard Mandarin Chinese in Pinyin romanization including (where available) tonal marks. Tones are numbered instead of appearing as accents due to the limitation of HTML.
  • Tibetan is transliterated using the standard English scheme including all consonant clusters -- not corresponding to the actual pronounciation.
  • Some English forms are given in [] specially for monasteries, rivers and mountains.


Tibet autonomoa / Tibetan Autonomous Region

Chinese Pinyin

Pinyin

Chinese Putonghua

Putonghua

Tibetan

Tibeteraz

Zhongguo [China]

Zhong1guo2

Krung-go; rGya-nag

Xizang [Tibet]

Xi1zang4

Bod

Xizang Zizhiqu [Tibetan Autonomous Region]

Xi1zang4 Zi4zhi4qu1

Bod Rang-skyong-ljongs

Amdo

An1duo1

-

Bainang

Bai2lang3 (Jiao3luo4)

-

Baxoi

Ba1su4 (Bai2ma3)

Tsha-ba sPag-shod

Bomi/Bowo

Bo1mi4 (Zha1mu4)

sPo-bo (sPo-smad)

Burang

Pu3lan2

sPu-rangs (sPu-hreng)

Cona

Cuo4no4 (Xue3xia4)

mTsho-na

Coqên (Maindong)

Cuo4qin2 (Men2dong1)

-

Daglung

Da4long1

sTag-lung

Dagzê (Dêqên)

Da2zi1 (De2qing4)

sTag-'tsher (bDe-chen)

Damxung

Dang1xiong2

'Dam-zhung

Dêngqên

Ding4qing1

sTeng-chen

Dinggyê

Ding4jie2 (Jiang1da2)

gTing-skyes

Doilungdêqên

Dui1long2de2qing4 (Lang3ga1)

sTod-lung bDe-chen

Gamba

Gang1ba1

Gam-pa

Gar

Ga2'er3 (Kun1sa4)

sGar-thog (sGar dgun-sa)

Garyarsa

Ga'eryasha

sGar dbyar-sa

Gêrzê

Gai3ze2

-

Gongbo'gyamda

Gong1bu4jiang1da2

Kong-po rGya-mda'

Gonggar

Gong4a1 (Ji2xiong2)

Gong-dkar

Gonjo

Gong4jiao3

Go-'jo

Gyaca

Jia1cha2 (Zhong4ba1)

Dwags-po rGya-tsha

Gyangzê

Jiang1zi1

rGyal-rtse

Gyirong (Zongga)

Ji2long2 (Zong1ga1)

sKyid-grong (lJongs-dga', rDzong-dga')

Kangmar

Kang1ma1

Khang-dmar

Lhari

Jia1li2

Lha-ri-mgo

Lhasa

La1sa4

Lha-sa

Lhazê

La1zi1

Lha-rtse

Lhorong

Luo4long2

Lho-rdzong

Lhozhag

Luo4zha1

Lho-brag

Lhünzê

Long2zi1

Lhun-rtse

Lhünzhub (Poindo)

Lin2zhou1 (Song1pan2)

Lhun-grub (Phu-mdo)

Mainling

Mi3lin2

-

Maizhokunggar

Mo4zhu2gong1ka3

Mal-gro gung-dkar

Markam (Gartok)

Mang2kang1 (Zhu2ka4)

dMar-khams (Sam-pho Gru-kha)

Nagarzê

Lang4ka3zi3

sNa-dkar-rtse

Nagqu

Na4qu1 (Hei1he2)

Nag-chu

Namling

Nan2mu4lin2

rNam-gling

Nêdong

Nai3dong1

sNe'u-gdong

Ngamring

Ang2ren2

Ngam-ring

Nyalam

Bie4la1mu4

Nya-lam

Nyingchi

Lin2zhi1

-

Qamdo

Chang1du1

Chab-mdo

Qonggyai

Qiong1jie2

'Phyong-rgyas

Qüxü

Qu1shui3

Chu-shul

Rinbung

Rin2bu4

Rin-spungs

Riwoqê

Lei4wu1qi2

Ri-bo-che

Rutog

Ri4tu3

Ru-thog

Sa'gya

Sa4jia1

Sa-skya

Saga (Gya'gya)

Sa4ga2 (Jia1jia1)

Sa-dga'

Shiquanhe

Shi1quan2he2

Seng-ge rdzong

Sog Xian

Suo3 xian4

Sog rdzong

Tingri (Xêgar)

Ding4ri4 (Xie2ge2'er3)

Ding-ri (Shel-dkar)

Xigazê

Ri4ka4ze2

gZhis-ka-rtse

Yadong/Chomo

Ya4dong1

sNa-gdong

Yangbajain

Yangbajing

Yangs-pa-can

Zanda (Toling)

Zha1da2 (Tuo1lin2)

mTho-lding

Zayü (Gyigang)

Cha2yu2 (Ji2gong1)

rDza-yul

Zêtang (Zedang)

Ze2dang1

rTse-thang

Zhag'yab

Cha2ya3

Brag-g.yab

Zogang/Wangda

Zuo3gong4

Tsha-ba mDzo-sgang

* Monatstegiak / *Monasteries

[Drepung, Lhasa]

Zhe2bang4 Si4

'Bras-spungs dgon-pa

[Ganden, Lhasa]

Ga1ndan1 Si4

dGa'-ldan dgon-pa

[Jokhang, Lhasa]

Da4zhao1 Si4

Jo-khang

[Norbulinka, Lhasa]

Luo2b4lin2ka3

Nor-bu-gling-kha

[Potala, Lhasa]

Bu4da2la1 Gong1

Gru-'dzin gnyis-pa

[Ramoche, Lhasa]

Xiao3zhao1 Si4

Ra-mo-che dgon-pa

[Samye]

Sang1ye2 Si4

bSam-yas

[Sera, Lhasa]

Se4la1 Si4

Se-ra dgon-pa

[Tashilhunbo, Xigazê]

Zha2shi2lun2bu2 Si4

bKra-shis-lhun-po dgon-pa

* Ibaiak / * Rivers

Jinsha Jiang [Yangtze]

Jinsha Jiang

'Bri-chu

Lancang Jiang [Mekong]

Lan2cang1 Jiang1

rDza-chu

Maquan He/Damqog Kanbab

Maquan He

rTa-mchog Kha-'bab

Nu Jiang [Salween]

Nu4 Jiang1

dNgul-chu

Shiquan He [Indus]

Shi1quan2 He2

Seng-ge Kha-'bab

Xiangquan He [Sutlej]

Xiangquan He (Langchu He)

gLang-chen Kha-'bab

Yarlung Zangbo Jiang [Brahmaputra]

Ya3lu3zang4bu4 Jiang1

Yar-klung-gtsang-po

* Lakuak / * Lakes

Bangong Co

Bangong Hu

sPang-gong mTsho

Gyaring Co

Jiaren Cuo

sKya-rengs mTsho

La'nga Co

Lanjia Cuo

Lang-ngar mTsho

Mapam Yumco [Manasarowar]

Mafamucuo Hu

Ma-pham g.Yu-mtsho

Nam Co [Tengrinor]

Namu Hu

gNam-mtsho

Siling Co

Qilin Cuo

Zi-ling mTsho

Yamzho Yumco [Yamdrok Tso]

Yangzhuoyong Hu

Yar-'brog g.Yu-mtsho

* Mendiak / * Mountains

Gangdisê Shan

Gang3di3si1 Shan1

Gangs-dkar-ti-si

Himalaya Shan

Ximalaya Shan

Hi-ma-la-ya

Kangrinboqê Feng

Gang3di3si1 Shan1

Gangs-rin-po-che

Kula Gangri

Gong1la1kang1li3 Shan1

Ku-la-gangs-ri

Kunlun Shan

Kun1lun2 Shan1

Khu-nu-la

Nyainqêntanglha Feng

Nian4qing1tang2gu3la1 Shan1

gNyan-chen-thang-lha

Qing Zang Gaoyuan

Qingzang Gaoyuan

Byang-thang

Qomolangma Feng [Everest]

Zhu1mu4lang1ma3 Feng1

Jo-mo-rlung-ma


GANSU

Gansu Province

Gan1su4 Sheng3

-

Jonê

Zhuo2ni2

Cho-ne

Lintan (Taozhou)

Lin2tan2 (Tao2zhou1)

Tho-gro'u

Têwo

Die2bu4

The-bo

Xiahe (Labrang)

Xia4he2 (La1bu3leng2)

bSang-khog (bLa-brang)


QINGHAI

Qinghai Province

Qing1hai3 Sheng3

mTsho-sngon Zhing-chen

Da'er Si [Kumbum, in Huangzhong]

Da2'er3 Si4

sKu-'bum

Golog Zangzu Zizhizhou
[Golog Tibetan Autonomous Area]

Guo3luo4 Zang4zu2 Zi4zhi4zhou1

mGo-log Bod-rigs Rang-skyong-khul

Hei He

Hei1 He2

Nag-chu

Huang He [Ibai Horia / Yellow River]

Huang2 He2

Tsong-chu

Huangzhong

Huang2zhong1

Tsong-kha

Longwu (Tongren)

Long2wu4 (Tong1ren2)

Rong-po

Qinghai Hu [Kokonur]

Qing1hai3 Hu2

mTsho-sngon

Xining

Xi1ning2

Zi-ling


SICHUAN

Sichuan Province

Si4chuan1 Sheng3

Se-khron Zhing-chen

Aba (Ngawa)

A1ba4

lNga-ba

Baili

Bai2li4

Pi-ri

Baiyü

Bai2yu4

sPa-yul

Batang

Ba1tang2

'Ba'-thang

Chuosijia

Chuo4si1jia3

Khro-skyab

Danba (Rongzhag)

Dan1ba1

Dam-pa

Dêgê

De2ge2

sDe-dge

Garzê

Gan1zi1

dKar-mdzes

Garzê Zangzu Zizhizhou
[Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Area]

Gan1zi1 Zang4zu2 Zi4zhi4zhou1

dKar-mdzes Bod-rigs Rang-skyong-khul

Kangding (Dardo)

Kang1ding1 (Da3jian4lu2)

Dar-mdo (Dar-rtse-mdo)

Litang

Li3tang2

Li-thang

Luhuo (Zhaggo)

Lu2huo4 (Jiang1ku3)

Brag-mgo

Qianning (Gartar)

Qian2ning2 (Ga2da2)

mGar-thar

Xinlong (Nyagrong)

Xin1long2

Nyag-rong

Zhuqing

Zhu2qing4

rDza-chu

Zoigê

Ruo4'er3gai4

mDzo-dge

Laguntzaile / Data provided by: Thomas Tvegaard
Eguneratua / Updated: 1997-9-20
Loturak / Links: http://www.tibet-society.org.uk


Mapak / Maps

* Txina: erregio eta eskualdeak
* China: regions and provinces

* Tibet autonomoaren mapa txinatarra (handia)
* Big size Chinese map of Autonomous Tibet

* Tibet osoa / * The whole Tibet

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