Knowledge of the Last Day
Those who reject the Signs of Allah and the Meeting with Him (in the Hereafter) it is they who shall despair of My mercy: it is they who will (suffer) a most grievous Penalty.
(Sura Ankabut, verse 23)
One of the articles of faith in Islam is to believe in the Last Day or the Day of Judgement as stated in Surah Baqarah, verse 117 :
177. It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces toward East or West; but it is righteousness to believe in Allah and the Last Day and the Angels and the Book and the Messengers; to spend of your substance out of love for Him for your kin for orphans for the needy for the wayfarer for those who ask and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer and practice regular charity; to fulfil the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient in pain (or suffering) and adversity and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth the Allah-fearing.
In the famous Hadith of Jibra'il, the Angel asked the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) about the time of the Last Day and the Prophet said that he did not know. In the same Hadith, when the Prophet was asked about the signs of the last day, he names a few. In other Hadith and in the Qur'an itself, there is proof of of the existance of minor signs and major signs.
The Minor Signs
The minor signs, according to the scholars, have been fulfilled. They include such things as widespread murder, taking of intoxicants, corruption, disrespect of parents, abuse of children, earthquakes, tyrants ruling the Muslim world, loss of trust, voices being raised in Masjids (mosques), etc.
The Major Signs
The major signs have not yet been fulfilled. There are many opinions about the order of these signs and the following is one way of understanding these phenomena:
The return of Isa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary)
Yajuj and Majuj (Gog and Magog)
The Daabah (the creature that speaks all languages)
The rising of the sun in the west
Three eclipses of the moon
A large fire driving the people from the south of Arabia to the place of resurrection
The Mahdi, according to Hadith, is from the family of the Prophet. His name is Muhammad, his father's name is Abdullah and his mother's name is Aminah. He will bring justice to the earth at a time of great evil.
The Dajjal, according to numerous Hadith, will be the greatest trial man will face. He will have one eye; his right eye is blinded.
A Hadith Narrated by Ibn Umar:
Once Allah's Apostle (Prophet Muhammad) stood amongst the people, glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and then mentioned the Dajjal saying, "I warn you against him (i.e. the Dajjal) and there was no prophet but warned his nation against him. No doubt, Noah warned his nation against him but I tell you about him something of which no prophet told his nation before me. You should know that he is one-eyed, and Allah is not one-eyed."
He will be a man who will have a Paradise with him that will really be a fire, and a fire that will really be a Paradise. He will lead a large army and eventually be killed by Isa, the son of Maryam.
The return of Isa
Isa, the son of Maryam, according to Qur'an and Hadith, was not killed nor crucifed, and he will return before the Day of Judgement as is stated in Surah Nisaa, verse 157-159:
157. That they said (in boast) "We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary the Apostle of Allah"; but they killed him not nor crucified him but so it was made to appear to them and those who differ therein are full of doubts with no (certain) knowledge but only conjecture to follow for of a surety they killed him not.
158. Nay Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power Wise.
159. And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment He will be a witness against them.
He will kill the Dajjal and bring peace to the world. Then he will die a natural death.
Yajuj and Majuj (Gog and Magog)
Yajuj and Majuj are the wild tribes that were imprisoned behind a large wall in the time of Zulqarnain. This story is mentioned in Sura Kahf. Some selected verses are as follows:
94. They said: "O Zul-qarnain! the Gog and Magog (people) do great mischief on earth: shall we then render thee tribute in order that thou mightest erect a barrier between us and them?"
97. Thus were they made powerless to scale it or to dig through it.
They will appear in the time of Isa and cause great destruction, but Allah will destroy them after the prayer of the believers.
98. He said: "This is a mercy from my Lord: but when the promise of my Lord comes to pass He will make it into dust; and the promise of My Lord is true."
99. On that day We shall leave them to surge like waves on one another; the trumpet will be blown and We shall collect them all together.
100. And We shall present Hell that day for Unbelievers to see all spread out.
Dukhaan will be a smoke that will spread throughout the world and will cause people to choke and become as though they were intoxicated as is mentioned in Surah Dukhaan, verses 10-12:
10. Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke (or mist) plainly visible.
11. Enveloping the people: this will be a Penalty Grievous.
12. (They will say:) "Our Lord! remove the Penalty from us for We do really believe!"
The Daabah will be a creature that will speak all languages. He will inform the people of the weakness of their faith. See surah Naml, verse 82:
82. And when the Word is fulfilled against them (the unjust) We shall produce from the earth a beast to (face) them: he will speak to them for that mankind did not believe with assurance in our Signs.
The rising of the Sun in the west
One of the last signs will be the rising of the sun in the west, and those who see it will then say they believe, but it will be too late. See Surah Anam.
Three Major Lunar Eclispes
There will be three major lunar eclipses, which will cause great fear on the people living in the world, since there can only be two lunar eclipses in any one year.
The Large Fire
Finally, there will be a large fire starting from Aden in Saudi Arabia, and it will drive people toward the plain of resurrection.
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