ASR

Alphabet Street Representation system for diacritics and special characters

Version 2.2


(Euskaraz hobeto)

Contents of this page


Introduction

In the Latin alphabet (and in transliterations into Latin) quite a lot of special characters and diacritic signs are used. HTML lets use view some of them, but not others. These are the characters that can be displayed using their HTML value (more detailed explanations here).

 
Áá Àà Ââ Ãã Ää Åå Ææ Çç Èè Éé Êê Ëë Ìì Íí Îî Ïï Ññ Óó Òò Ôô Öö Õõ Øø ß Ùù Úú Ûû Üü ÿ

We type those characters above just that way in GeoNative. For other characters that we cannot display, we use a self-made solution to render them visible in GeoNative, the Alphabet Street Representation (ASR). ASR works placing Ascii signs supported by HTML right after the modified characters, and using other HTML tricks as the Strikethru style. Some examples:

Original forms

ASR

Chis¸ina(u
Ly´dh»veldidh» Ísland
Gradis<c<e
Wloclawek
 

Fantasy example

Diacritics

ASR

[R Acute] [y Grave] [w Circumflex] [n Diaeresis] [u Tilde]

R´y`w^n¨u~

[G Dot Above] [a Macron] [g Breve] [u Ring Above] [z Caron]

G·a¯g(u°z<

[H Macron below] [o Macron Ogonek] [u Dot Below] [t Cedilla] [u Ogonek]

Ho¯«u!t¸u«

[D Bar] [l Slash] [i Dotless] [Sami Eng] [o Double Acute]

Dli+ng»ö+

 

 

Notes for the Tables
 
Some special characters can be displayed more or less using one HTML trick: styles.
 
The Unicode organization is cataloguing all scripts and characters of the world. You can visit their site and look how all Characters mentioned look really. We mention the Unicode code number in the following tables, and you can find the corresponding images in Unicode:
The present version of ASR is called 2.2. The first one, 1.0, was improved by suggestions of collaborator Peeter Pall, who devised his own system in Estonia (we can call that 2.0), and we also recieved additions by Thomas Tvegaard (his version would be 2.1). We feel really grateful to them. ASR is open to more suggestions and improvements, of course.

Table 1. Most usual diacritics

Unicode

Name

ASR

U+0300

GRAVE ACCENT

`

U+0301

ACUTE ACCENT

´

U+0302

CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT

^

U+0303

TILDE

~

U+0304

MACRON

¯

U+0306

BREVE

(

U+0307

DOT ABOVE

:

U+0308

DIAERESIS

¨

U+030A

RING ABOVE

°

U+030B

DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT
Apparently only for Hungarian O o U u

ö+ ü+

U+030C

CARON

<

U+0323

DOT BELOW

!

U+0327

CEDILLA

¸

U+0328

OGONEK

«

U+0331

MACRON BELOW Underlined character

Hefa

U+0335

SHORT STROKE OVERLAY
Character in Strikethru style

LkldD

U+0337

SHORT SOLIDUS OVERLAY Character in Strikethru style

LkldD

U+0180
U+01E4
U+019A
INTEGRATED HORIZONTAL STROKE or BAR
Character in Strikethru style

kD

U+0142

INTEGRATED DIAGONAL STROKE or SLASH Character in Strikethru style

Lld


Table 2. Other modified characters

Name

New ASR

MODIFIER OF PREVIOUS TWO CHARACTERS Ligatures and characters that stand for two

»

MODIFIER OF PREVIOUS CHARACTER

+

Unicode examples

Name

U+014B

LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG

ng»

U+01DD

SCHWA
(Azeri turned e)

ä+

U+0131

LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS I

i+

U+0138

LATIN SMALL LETTER KRA

q+

U+0190

LATIN CAPITAL LETTER OPEN E

E+

U+00D0
U+01F0

ICELANDIC ETH

dh»

U+00DE
U+01FE

ICELANDIC THORN

th»

U+01B7

CAPITAL EZH

ZH»

 
Table 3. Combination of diacritics (examples)

Unicode examples

Name

New ASR

U+01DF

LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS AND MACRON

ä¯

U+01E1

LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DOT ABOVE AND MACRON

a¯:

U+01ED

LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH OGONEK AND MACRON

o¯«

Table 4. Free apostrophe-like signs
 
The following characters are not ASR signs that indicate some change in the previous character but apostrophe-like characters by itself, independent from the previous character. These are used mainly in transliterations.

Name

ASR

ARABIC AYN

`'

CYRILLIC HARD SIGN

"

CYRILLIC SOFT SIGN

'

NENETS SINGLE APOSTROPHE
Sign in Strikethru style

'

NENETS DOUBLE APOSTROPHE
Sign in Strikethru style

"

Table 5. Unusual diacritics

Unicode examples

Name

New ASR

U+0336

LONG STROKE OVERLAY Character in Strikethru style

LkldD

U+0338

LONG SOLIDUS OVERLAY Character in Strikethru style

LkldD

U+030D

VERTICAL LINE ABOVE

]

U+030E

DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE ABOVE

]]

U+0310

CANDRABINDU

U+0311

INVERTED BREVE

>

U+0312

TURNED COMMA ABOVE
apparently only for Latvian small g

`

U+0315

COMMA ABOVE RIGHT
apparently only for Czech small d t and Slovak small d l t

´

U+0305

OVERLINE
Needs no distinction for Macron

¯

U+0309

HOOK ABOVE

?

U+0181
U+01B3
U+01B4

INTEGRATED HOOK

?

U+0182
U+018C

INTEGRATED TOPBAR

¬

U+0316

GRAVE ACCENT BELOW Underlined grave

`

U+0317

ACUTE ACCENT BELOW Underlined acute

´

U+031B

HORN

#

U+031F

PLUS SIGN BELOW Underlined sign

+

U+0320

MINUS SIGN BELOW
Underlined character. No distinction from Macron

Hefa

U+0321

PALATALIZED HOOK BELOW Underlined sign

?

U+0322

RETROFLEX HOOK BELOW

¿

U+0324

DIAERESIS BELOW Underlined sign

¨

U+0325

RING BELOW Underlined sign

°

U+0326

COMMA BELOW
Needs no distinction from Cedilla

¸

U+032C

CARON BELOW
Underlined sign

<

U+032D

CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT BELOW Underlined sign

^

U+032E

BREVE BELOW Underlined sign

(

U+032F

INVERTED BREVE BELOW Underlined sign

>

U+0330

TILDE BELOW Underlined sign

~

U+0332

LOW LINE Underlined character. No distinction from Macron.

Hefa

U+0340

GRAVE TONE MARK Looks exactly like grave accent

`

U+0341

ACUTE TONE MARK Looks exactly like acute accent

´

U+0360

DOUBLE TILDE

U+0361

DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE

U+0140
U+013F
MIDDOT IN RIGHT SIDE
Apparently only for Catalan L l

L· l·

 
Table 6. Most unusual diacritics
No ASR solution by now. We will invent something if needed.

Unicode examples

Name

U+0313

COMMA ABOVE

U+0314

REVERSED COMMA ABOVE

U+030F

DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT

U+0318

LEFT TACK BELOW

U+0319

RIGHT TACK BELOW

U+031A

LEFT ANGLE ABOVE

U+031C

LEFT HALF RING BELOW

U+031D

UP TACK BELOW

U+031E

DOWN TACK BELOW

U+0329

VERTICAL LINE BELOW

U+032A

BRIDGE BELOW

U+032B

INVERTED DOUBLE ARCH BELOW

U+0333

DOUBLE LOW LINE

U+0334

TILDE OVERLAY

U+0339

RIGHT HALF RING BELOW

U+033A

INVERTED BRIDGE BELOW

U+033B

SQUARE BELOW

U+033C

SEAGULL BELOW

U+033D

X ABOVE

U+033E

VERTICAL TILDE

U+033F

DOUBLE OVERLINE


Eguneratua / Updated: 1997-10-24 

 

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