Kurdistan


Kurdistan

1990ean 26.3 milioi kurdu bizi ziren Kurdistanen, eta diasporakoak erbestean. Kurdistan estatu gabeko nazio handia da: Turkia, Iran (beste orri batean), Irak (beste orri batean), Irak, Siria, Libano eta Sobiet Batasuna zeneko parte batzuk (beste orri batean) hartzen ditu. Kurdu gehien Turkian bizi dira (Kurdu guztien %52), gero Iranen (%25.5), Iraken (%16), Sirian (%5) eta Kaukasoan (%1.5).
Kurduera hizkuntza Iraniarra da, Indo-Europarra, beraz, eta badu gaiza komun bat euskararekin: ergatiboa da, baina soilik lehenaldiko egituretan. Mintzaira kurdu nagusiak: Ipar Kurmanji edo Bahdinani (15 m hiztunTurkian, Sirian eta Kaukasoan, idazkera latinoa), Hego Kurmanji edo Sorani (6 m Irak eta Iranen, idazkera pertso-arabiarra), Dimili (4 m, Turkian batik bat, latinoa), Gurani (3 m, hegoaldeko Irak eta Iranen, pertsiarra)
 

Kurdistan

In 1990 there were 26.3 million Kurds in the Middle East, plus the diaspora. Their territory, Kurdistan, takes part of Turkey, Iran (another page), Iraq (another page), Syria, Lebanon, and some regions of the former Soviet Union (another page). Their largest concentrations are now respectively in Turkey (approx. 52% of all Kurds), Iran (25.5%), Iraq (16%), Syria (5%) and the Caucasus (1.5%).
Kurdish is a Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It shares one thing with Basque: ergativity, which appears in past tense forms. Main dialects or languages: Kurmanji proper or North Kurmanji or Bahdinani (15 m speakers in Turkey, Syria, former USSR; Latin script), South Kurmanji or Sorani (6 m in Iraq and Iran, modified perso-arabic script), Dimili (4 m, mainly in Turkey, Latin script), Gurani (3 m, in south Iraq an Iran, Persian alphabet).

Izen kurduak Hawar izeneko idazkera latinotik hartuak daude. Zeinu diakritiko bereziak honela ageri dira, ASR sistemarekin adieraziak:
Kurduera: s¸ [cedilla]
Turkiera: s¸ [cedilla] g( [breve]
i+ [i xehe puntugabea] I· [I larri puntuduna]

Kurdish names written according to the Hawar latin script. The following signs are written in ASR system:
Kurdish: s¸ [cedilla]
Turkish: s¸ [cedilla] g( [breve]
i+ [small dotless i] I· [capital I with dot]
 

Kurduak Sirian

1.3 m Kurdu daude Sirian, estatuko biztanleen %9.2, kurdu guztien %5. Iparraldean bizi dira, eta Kurmanji hiztunak dira. Beren lurrari "Bin Xetê" (marraren azpian, Turkia-Siria mugako trenbideagatik diote) eta beste aldea "Ser Xetê" da (marraz gaindi). Kurdistandik kanpo ere bizi dira Kurduak Sirian, hala nola Damaskon, bereziki auzo kurduan (Taxa Kurdan).

Kurdish in Syria

There are around 1.3 m Kurds in Syria, 9.2% of the total population of this State, 5% of all Kurds of Kurdistan. They live in the northern part, and are mainly North Kurmanji speakers. the Kurds in Syria refer to their territory as "Bin Xetê" (under the line, ie the railway beween Turkey and Syria) and refer to the part on the other side of the border "Ser Xetê" (over the line). In areas outside Kurdistan there are as well Kurd concentrations, as in the Kurdish Quarter (Taxa Kurdan) of Damascus.

Kurdistan Sirian

* Arabieraz

* Kurdueraz

* Syria

* Sûrî / Sûriye

* [Kurdish regions in Syria]

* Bas¸ura Biçûk / Parçeya Biçûk

Afrin

Efrîn

Afrin [river]

çemê Efrînê

Ain al-Arab

Koban / Kobane

Ain Diwar

Endîwer

Al-Furat [river Euphrates]

Firat

al-Jazirah

Cezîre

al-Malikiya

Dêrik

al-Qamishli

Qamis¸lo

al-Ya'rubiyah

Tilkoçer / Girê Kember

Amuda

Amûd / Amûde

Darbasiyah

Dirbêsiye

Duguer

Dugir

Jaghjagh [river]

Cexcex

Khabur [river]

Xabûr

Kurd Dagh

Kurdax / çiyayê Kurdan / çiyayê Kurdaxê / çiyayê Kurmênc

Maachuq

Mas¸oq

Qubur al-Bid

Tirba Spî / Tirbaspî

Ras al-Ain

Serê Kaniyê / Serêkaniyê

Rumailan

Rimêlan

Sweidyeh

Siwêdiye

Siria: Kurdistanetik kanpo / Out of Kurdistan

al-Hasakah

Hesîçe, Hesêçe

al-Khatuniyah

Xatûniye

Dair az-Zaur

Dêrezor

Dimashq [Damascus]

S¸am

Halab [Aleppo]

Heleb

 

Kurduak Turkian

Turkiako nazio zapaldua da Kurdistan, estatuaren hego-mendebaldean. Turkiako beste hiri nagusietan ere kurdu asko dago. Guztira, 13.7 m kurdu, estatuko biztanleen %24.1%, kurdu guztien %52. Hizkuntzak: Ipar Kurmanji eta Dimili; erbesteko Turkiako kurduak material idatzi asko ari dira editatzen Europan idazker latinozko Kurmanji mintzairan. Gerra eta zapalkuntza latza den arren, Kurduak hazten ari dira, eta beren joera demografikoak Turkiako lehen talde etniko bihurtzera eraman ditzake.

Kurdish in Turkey

The great minority group of Turkey: Kurdistan comprises southeast Turkey, and Kurds also live in cities all over the State. 13.7 million Kurds, 24.1% of the total population of this State, 52% of all Kurds of Kurdistan. North Kurmanji and Dimili are the most used languages. Literature and publishing in Latin script Kurmanji is being encouraged by the exiles in Europe. Despite war and repression, Kurds are a rapid growing group, their demographic trend may transform them in the main ethnic group of Turkey.

Kurdistan Turkian

* Turkieraz

* Kurdueraz

Adakli+

Azarpêrt

Adi+yaman

Semsûr / Pirrûn / S¸ems¸ûr / Qela Mensûr

Adilcevaz

Elcewaz

Ag(i+n

Axin

Ag(ri+

Agirî / Qerekose

Ag(ri+dag( [Mount Ararat]

Girîdax / çiyayê Girîdaxê

Alacakaya

Xulaman

Ardahan

Erdehan

Ari+cak

Miyaran

As¸kale

As¸qale

Batman

Batman / Êlih

Baykan

Hewêl

Bingöl

Çewlîg / Çolîg / Bîngol / Çebaxçur

Birecik

Bêrecûg

Bitlis

Bidlîs / Bedlîs

Bozova

Hewenc

Bulani+k

Kop

Çayi+rli+

Mose

Çelikhan

Çêlikan

Çemis¸gezek

Çemis¸gezek

Çermik

Çêrmûg

Ceylanpi+nar

Serê Kaniyê

Çüngüs¸

S¸ankus¸ / S¸onkus¸

Dicle

Pîran

Dicle [river Tigris]

Dîcle

Diyarbaki+r

Diyarbekir / Amed

Eg(il

Gêl

Elâzi+g(

Elezîz / Xarpût / Xarpêt

Ergani

Erxanî

Eruh

Dih

Erzincan

Erzingan, Erzîngan

Erzurum

Erzirom / Erzerom

Fi+rat [river Euphrates]

Firad

Gaziantep

Enteb / Dilûk / Dîlok

Genç

Dara Hênî / Darahênî / Darê Yenî

Gerger

Aldûs¸

Gölbas¸i+

Serê Golan

Hakkari

Çolemêrg / Çulemêrg / Hekarî

Halfeti

Xelfetî

Hani

Hêni

Hilvan

Curnê Res¸

Hi+ni+s

Xinûs¸ Kela

Horesan

Xoresan

Hozat

Xozat

Kahramanmaras¸ / Maras¸

Meres¸

Kahta

Kolik

Karakoçan

Depe

Karayazi+

Gogsî

Karli+ova

Kanîres¸

Kars

Qers / Serhedan

Kemah

Kemax

Kig(i

Gêxî / Kêxî

Kocaköy

Karaz

Kovanci+lar

Qowanciyan

Kulp

Pasûr

Kurtalan

Misriç

Lice

Licê / Lici / Liji

Maden

Meden

Malatya

Meletî

Malazgirt

Milazgir

Maras¸ / Kahramanmaras¸

Meres¸

Mardin

Mêrdîn

Mazgirt

Mazgêrt

Mus¸

Mûs¸

Mutki

Motkî

Nazimiye

Qisle / Nazimîya

Oltu

Oltî

Ovaci+k

Pulur / Vacixe

Palu

Pali

Pasinler

Hesenqele

Pertek

Pêrtage

Pervari

Berwarî

Pülümür

Pilemuriye / Pilumer

Samsat

Semsat

S¸anli+urfa / Urfa

Riha / Ruha

S¸enkaya

Ortîlî

Siirt

Sêrt

Silvan

Silîvan

S¸i+rnak

S¸ernex

S¸irvan

S¸êrvan

Sivas

Sêwas

Siverek

Sêwregi

Sivrice

Sivrice

Solhan

Bongilan

Suruç

Sirûç

Tatvan

Tûx

Tekman

Tatos

Tunceli

Dersîm / Kalan / Dêrsim

Urfa / S,anli+urfa

Riha / Ruha

Üzümlü

Ciminî

Van

Wan

Varto

Gimgim

Virans¸ehir

Wêrans¸ar

Yayladere

Xorxol

Yedisu

Çêrme

Yüksekova

Gewer

Kurdistandik kanpo / Out of Kurdistan

* Turkieraz

* Kurdueraz

Adana

Edene

Ankara

Enqere

Cihanbeyli

Cîhanbeylî

I·stanbul

Stenbol

I·zmir

Îzmîr

Kayseri

Qeyserî

Sivas

Sêwas


Kurduak Libanon

Kurduen iturrien arabera,90.000 Kurdu zeuden Libanon 1983an, gehienak Beirut, Tarabulus eta Bekaa Haranean. Horietarik, %70ek ez zuen Libanoko herritartasunik nahiz eta belaunaldiak izan han kokatuak direla.

Kurdish in Lebanon

According to Kurd sources, there were about 90 000 Kurds in Libanon in 1983, mainly in Beirut, Tarabulus and the Bekaa Valley; 70% of these without Libanese passport although they have lived there for generations.

* Arabieraz

* Ingelesez

* Kurdueraz

* Al-Lubnan

* Lebanon

* Lûbnan

Al-Biqa

Bekaa Valley

Geliyê Biqa

Bayrut

Beirut

Beyrût

Tarabulus

Tripoli

Terabulus


Eguneratua / Last updated: 1998.10.01
Loturak / Links: http://www.xs4all.nl/~tank/kurdish/htdocs/facts/
Laguntzaileak / Informers: Mikael Frölund (euskaraz idatziozu: ikasten ari da!) Michael L. Chyet

 

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