Philippine Insurrection
Philippine Insurrection
(Feb. 4, 1899 - Jul. 4, 1902)

Contents:
I.Backround
II.Philippine Forces
III.American Forces
IV.Philippine Losses
V.American Losses
VI.Conclusion
VII.Pictures

I.Backround

During the War with Spain, Emilio Aguinaldo (who had led an unsuccessful insurrection in 1896-97) organized a native army in the Philippines and secured control of several islands, including much of Luzon. Following the victory in the War With Spain, treaty negotiations were initiated between Spanish and American representatives in Paris. The Treaty of Paris was signed on December 10, 1898. Among its conditions was the cession of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico to the United States (Cuba was granted its independence). Cession of the Philippines to the United States (Treaty of Paris, 10 December 1898) disappointed many Filipinos. President William McKinley issued a proclamation on December 21, 1898, declaring United States policy to be one of "benevolent assimilation" in which "the mild sway of justice and right" would be substituted for "arbitrary rule." When this was published in the islands on January 4, 1899, references to "American sovereignty" having been prudently deleted, Phillipine President Aguinaldo issued his own proclamation that condemned "violent and aggressive seizure" by the United States and threatened war. Hostilities broke out on the night of February 4, 1899, after two American privates on patrol killed three Filipino soldiers in a suburb of Manila. Thus began a war that would last for more than two years.

The Filipino troops, armed with old rifles and bolos and carrying anting-anting (magical charms), were no match for American troops in open combat, but they were formidable opponents in guerrilla warfare. For General Ewell S. Otis, commander of the United States forces later replaced by Gen. Arthur MacArthur, who had been appointed military governor of the Philippines, the conflict began auspiciously with the expulsion of the rebels from Manila and its suburbs by late February and the capture of Malolos, the revolutionary capital, on March 31, 1899. Aguinaldo and his government escaped, however, establishing a new capital at San Isidro in Nueva Ecija Province. The Filipino cause suffered a number of reverses. The attempts of Mabini and his successor as president of Aguinaldo's cabinet, Pedro Paterno, to negotiate an armistice in May 1899 ended in failure because Otis insisted on unconditional surrender.

II.Philippine Forces

Philippines

Philippine Commander:Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo

Philippine Forces 1899-1902

Country Troops
Philippines 50,000

Gen. Aguinaldo and his men were veterans of two wars against Spain when he declared war against the United States. He soon found out that his forces were no match for the American troops so he changed his tactics. He now lead a guerilla war of harassing American troops. As in any guerilla war many civilians are killed believing they are fighters. This tactic helps the guerillas because more and more civilians then would join their ranks. Such was the case with Gen. Aguinaldo, he had a lot of volunteers outside his troops.

III.American Forces

USA
American Commander: Gen. Arthur MacArthur

American Forces 1899-1902

Country Regular
Troops
Volunteer
Troops
Total
Troops
United States 62,275 50,002 112,277

The United States had a larger army than the Filipinos and were equipped with better weapons. One of the weapons that the United States possessed was the Gatling gun which was a machine gun. Because of the advantage of American firepower, the Filipinos switched to a guerilla war. A number of times American troops were ambushed and the captured were executed. It is because of these actions that American troops began rougher tactics with captured Filipinos, including executions.

IV.Philippine Losses

Philippine Losses 1899-1902

Country Troops
Killed
Civilian
Dead
Philippines 20,000 200,000

The number of Filipino soldiers killed was high because of the American superiority in weapons and training. Most of the civilian deaths were due to starvation or disease. Only a small number were killed by American troops.

V.American Losses

American Losses 1899-1902

Country Troops
Killed
Troops
Wounded
USA 4,234 2,779

Most of the American deaths were due to disease. A small number were victims of Filipino atrocities after being captured. The American soldier proved superior in battle and even in a guerilla war. Some Filipinos came and allied themselves to the American side. After the war Americans and Filipinos became close friends, during WWII both would fight side by side against the Japanese to protect the Philippines.

VI.Conclusion

Things started to go downhill for the rebels after the murder of Luna, Aguinaldo's most capable military commander, in June. Hot-tempered and cruel, Luna collected a large number of enemies among his associates, and, according to rumor, his death was ordered by Aguinaldo. With his best commander dead and his troops suffering continued defeats as American forces pushed into northern Luzon, Aguinaldo dissolved the regular army in November 1899 and ordered the establishment of decentralized guerrilla commands in each of several military zones. More than ever, American soldiers knew the miseries of fighting an enemy that was able to move at will within the civilian population in the villages.

Although Aguinaldo's government did not have effective authority over the whole archipelago and resistance was strongest and best organized in the Tagalog area of Central Luzon, the notion entertained by many Americans that independence was supported only by the "Tagalog tribe" was refuted by the fact that there was sustained fighting in the Visayan Islands and in Mindanao. Although the ports of Iloilo on Panay and Cebu on Cebu were captured in February 1899, and Tagbilaran, capital of Bohol, in March, guerrilla resistance continued in the mountainous interiors of these islands. Only on the sugar-growing island of Negros did the local authorities peacefully accept United States rule. On Mindanao the United States Army faced the determined opposition of Christian Filipinos loyal to the republic.

Aguinaldo was captured at Palanan on March 23, 1901, by a force of Philippine Scouts loyal to the United States and was brought back to Manila. Convinced of the futility of further resistance, he swore allegiance to the United States and issued a proclamation calling on his compatriots to lay down their arms. Yet insurgent resistance continued in various parts of the Philippines until 1903.

Some 113,000 American soldiers would be committed to the conflict, 4,234 American and 20,000 Filipino soldiers, part of a nationwide guerrilla movement of indeterminate numbers, died. The general population, caught between Americans and rebels, suffered horribly. According to historian Gregorio Zaide, as many as 200,000 civilians died, largely because of famine and disease, by the end of the war. Atrocities were committed on both sides.

VII.Pictures

Mao of American Empire 1900
American troops firing
Filipinos soldiers dead in a trench
More dead Filipino soldiers
Occupation of Malolos
American troops entering Manila
American Soldiers
Filipino Guerillas
Flipino Congress Declaring War on the US February 4, 1899
American troops leaving San Francisco for the Philippines
Sources Used