The Micronations Page


What are Micronations?

Micronations, microstates, imaginary countries, countercountries, unrecognized nations, or ephemeral states, are all terms for countries which have been declared independent by (usually eccentric) individuals or small groups, but unlike other such attempts, fail to achieve widespread diplomatic recognition. Many have only one inhabitant; others are larger. Most seem to consist of a single Grand Poobah, with or without a coterie of petits Poobahs. Talossa, however, counts over 50 citizens who have been part of its wild multiparty political structure. And there are reportedly 20,000 people with Hutt River citizenship or honours--more than several members of the UN!

In most cases, Micronation founders have declared dominion over land that actually exists; often tiny, isolated islands, sometimes under several feet of water. Like other countries, some of these nations have proclaimed declarations of independence, adopted constitutions, sought diplomatic recognition, sent out envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary, displayed coats-of-arms, and issued stamps, passports, and currency.

The best study of the Micronation 'movement' was written by Erwin S. Strauss in 1984 and titled How To Start Your Own Country. This book contains detailed descriptions of over 100 such countercountry projects, with photographs of their rulers, passports, coins, paper money, and flags. The book is available from Loompanics Unlimited (PO Box 1197, Port Townshend, WA 98368, USA) and was last reported at $12.95. It can be ordered through reputable bookstores.

The Micronations Page does not include "countries" which are explained at length in the Strauss book, except in a few important cases; this Page can be considered a "sequel" to Strauss.

Each Micronation listed below is rated from "1" to "5," in brackets (e.g. {1}) according to the following tentative typology. (Please e-mail me at talossa@execpc.com if you have any suggestions or corrections to make.) Criteria I used when evaluating each Micronation were: Duration of its existence, whether it had any publications, coverage in the news media, how many people were involved, internet presence (either by having its own web site or being referred to in some article on the web), whether or not it announced its presence to government authorities.

List of Known Micronations

This list and includes all Micronations which have come to my attention, past or present, active or defunct, and which a) are not contained in Strauss's book, and b) I've chosen to include. If you know of any others, and can provide evidence of their existence, please e-mail me at talossa@execpc.com. Contributions will be acknowledged.

Sources are acknowledged where possible in the synopses below. How to Start Your Own Country, is listed as "Strauss." Other sources include "SPJ" (an article "The State Department's Kooky Kings File" in The Stevens Point Journal, 22 October 1986; thanks to Sandee Prachel for bringing this to my attention); "TPA" is The People's Almanac, Volume 2. "HKT" is The History of the Kingdom of Talossa.


Abaco {3}

This "free nation"--as its founder, Mike Oliver, a real estate developer from Carson City, Nevada, calls it--is an island in the Bahamas, 170 miles east of Florida with an area of 700 square miles. Oliver wrote a book about his nation called A New Constitution for a New Country, but the other 6,500 Abaconians have yet to recognize Oliver as their king. He claims Abaconians are "determined not to become another banana republic." (TPA)

Ældaria, Empire of -- {2}

The Ældarian Empire is an internet-based country that was established in Texas in February of 1996. It claims a citizen base of "less than 50" (though how much less isn't stated) and a non-citizen population of 10,000 "Vulgars" who don't know they're living in Ældarian-claimed territory. The founder and current ruler is Emperor Dale I, a.k.a. Dale Morris, who supplied us the information and the link to his new country.

Akhzivland {4}

According to the LET'S GO travel guide to Israel published by Harvard Student Agencies, Inc., there is "a self-proclaimed independent state" called Akhzivland, founded in 1952 north of Nahariya close to the Lebanese border, inside Israel. It was founded by a man called Eli Avivi, who will stamp your passport with an "Akhzivland" entry visa. [Information courtesy Rolf Palmberg.]

Alphistia {1}

Alphistia is an "imaginary country" created by Anthony W. Skaggs of New York. It does not claim physical existence. Rather, it is more of a mental exercise. However, Skaggs has produced an elaborate book on Alphistia, Introduction to Alphistia, which gives details about the country's geography, history, and society. The place names are vaguely Scandinavian and the general feel is of a north-European welfare state with a left-wing bent (strict gun control, Gay rights, ecumenical churches, a socialistic-type economic system, and so forth). There is apparently a developed Alphistian language. The book is quite attractive, with colour flags and maps. Skaggs actively solicits comments and suggestions, and can be reached at: Alphistia Project, c/o A.W. Skaggs, POB 818, New York, NY 10023.

Araucania and Patagonia, Kingdom of -- {5}

The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia is not a country per se, but instead is a sort of Government in Exile. According to its official history, a Frenchman named Orelie-Antoine de Tounens arrived in Araucania (a region in southern Chile and/or Argentina) on 22 August 1858 and settled in the unexplored wilds of Araucania, where he made contact with local Indians and on 17 November 1860, convinced them to proclaim him their King in accord with some Indian prophecies. He claimed all lands south of the River Bío-Bío (which amounted to the southern half of Chile) as a "Kingdom of New France." He was arrested by Chilean authorities, and deported back to France. Antoine I returned to lead a revolt against Chile, but in 1871 ran out of money and went back to France where he wrote memoirs of his exploits. After his death, various French pretenders arose to claim the "throne" of Araucania and Patagonia, and in 1951 Prince Antoine III abdicated in favour of the current monarch, Philippe of Araucania, born 1927. He visited his dominions in 1989. (See article in Américas, Vol. 42, No. 5, 1990. A number of individuals have formed a society to keep the dream alive of an independent Araucania and Patagonia. [Info courtesy Erwin Wodarczak and Dan Morrison.]

'Art Countries' {1}

There is apparently a growing worldwide phenomenon of "art countries," groups of artists and other bohemian-types declaring their local artist communities "independent countries." Several of them have come to my attention, including the Artists' Republic of Fremont (in Seattle, Washington), and a group in Slovenia called "Neue Slowenische Kunst" which has its own passports and plans to issue its own currency and stamps. Frankly I don't know how to characterize these "art countries," but since the whole point of being an artist is to grab as much publicity for one's self as one can, I will give them as little publicity as possible.

Atlantis {3}

The oldest Micronation may be "Atlantis," which was born on some islands off Ecuador in 1933. Someone was once caught trying to enter the U.S. at El Paso, Texas, using an Atlantis passport. This may be the same country listed in Strauss, p. 65, as "Atlantis And Lemuria," a principality or empire which used Esperanto on its official seal. (SPJ)

Borovnia {5}

The Kingdom of Borovnia was the invention of two teenage girls in 1950's New Zealand. They were best friends, and created an elaborate story life around Borovnia. They took their fantasy country too far, and ended up murdering the mother of one of the girls. When the girls went to trial, the tales of "Borovnia" were among the evidence presented in court. The story was retold in 1994 in Peter Jackson's film, "Heavenly Creatures." There is a web site devoted to the film which presents more information about Borovnia and its murderous inhabitants. [Information courtesy Adam Abrams.]

Cascadia, Commonwealth of -- {2}

On Tuesday, 16 July 1996, Governor General (and The Hon. Rev.) Joshua Nakashima of Seattle, Washington, declared the existence of a Commonwealth of Cascadia. Nakashima, a knight of the Hutt River Province (q.v.) was fed up with Hutt River's increasingly unabashed commercialism and the fact that power in Hutt River had shifted away from the original Huttians to a cabal of financiers in Brisbane at the opposite end of Australia. To restore the original Huttian ethos, Nakashima (and perhaps some supporters) founded Cascadia and appointed him "Premier-for-time-being."

Castellania, Principality of -- {2}

The Principality of Castellania (Fürstentum Castellania) was created by "Prince Ralph I" and a group of disenchanted Austrians on 17 February 1974. Its location, somewhere in the South Pacific, was kept secret. According to one of its leaders, "Castellania is more a state of mind." The country seems to have been a straight-forward money-making operation, and sold citizenships for $145. (SPJ, Strauss 82)

Conch Republic {5}

In July of 1982, the US Border Patrol set up a military-style roadblock on the Overseas Highway in Key West, Florida, where all northbound traffic was stopped and searched for illegal aliens and drugs. The ensuing well-publicized traffic jam effectively stymied Key West's tourism industry. Mayor Dennis Wardlow, along with five local businessmen, hatched a scheme to save the Key West economy. The "Conch Republic" was created, declaring its independence and war on the United States, and then immediately surrendering and applying for foreign aid. The roadblock was discontinued, and the economy was saved. Today, the tradition of the Conch Republic revolution continues with a yearly celebration, and appointment of various Conch Ambassadors. The country has an (unofficial?) web site, and further information is available there, including a free e-zine.

Confederate States of America {2}

Rob Hart and some of his friends in Richmond, Virginia (former capital of the 1861-1865 Confederate States of America) proclaimed the revival of the old Confederacy on 15 August 1995, as a micronation. The country's flag was taken from that of the old Confederacy, and the Jeff Davis CSA constitution was restored (though "edited so that things like slavery were removed"). There were several political parties, including Dixiecrats, Communists, Greens and Nazis. The country claimed some land around Richmond, VA, plus Truk and a number of other islands in the Pacific. In the summer of 1996 it merged into the Union of Ruritarian Republics (q.v.)

Coralland, United Kingdom of -- {2}

A citizen of the United Kingdom of Coralland wrote a letter to the US State Department, dated 29 August 1986, seeking to register as a foreign agent in the United States. No further information is available. (SPJ)

Crowsnest Pass, Principality of -- {3}

When a dam project diverted a river on the British Columbia-Alberta border, somebody decided that since the border followed the watershed, when the river changed course from the Atlantic to the Pacific watershed, the border should change. When the Canadian government made no official announcement, he decided to declare the land between the "old" and "new" borders a new country, the Principality of Crowsnest Pass. If anyone can provide us with any information about this secession, please e-mail us. [Thanks to Erwin Wodarczak for this information.]

Cryonica, Principality of -- {4}

The Principality of Cryonica was set up on New Year's Day, 1994, in Iron County, Utah. It also claims some territory in California, and Antarctica. It claims to be the "33rd member of the International Council of Independent States," and claims diplomatic relations with three other states. The country's stated purpose is "ensuring that none of the nation's 12 fully registered citizens/nationals ever die." The country is preparing its citizens to spend eternity in suspended animation! It claims to have 200 citizens currently frozen, and also claims "any and all non-terrestrial life forms in the solar system, and all proto-sentient species (a.k.a. apes, dolphins, etc.)" Though it calls itself a Principality, its head of state is King Jay M. Carlisle III (who sent us this information).

Dutch Geo Fiction Association

The Dutch Geo Fiction Association (GvG) is headquartered in the Netherlands. It was founded in 1984 and currently claims some 40 members, who have either created "fictional" countries or are simply interested in the phenomenon of "fictional" countries. There is an apparent distinction between Micronations (which actually claim some sovereignty, however phony) and Geo Fictions, whose creators admit are completely imaginary. The GvG's web site has additional information on the group and its objectives, along with the names of several member countries. Much of the information is in Dutch, but there are some English translation.

Ederingrijk der Vrieslanden {1}

Ken Nathanson of Canada reports the existence of the "Ederingrijk der Vrieslanden," on an island off Holland in the North Sea which seceded in 1982 and later proclaimed itself "the world's second Jewish state." I am dubious about the actual existence of the Ederingrijk and suspect it is Mr. Nathanson's attempt to get his name into this page.

Elgaland and Vargaland, Kingdoms of -- {3}

Elgaland and Vargaland is a long-running micronation based in Sweden. They have a home page, which lists over 160 citizens. The country claims all territory located between other independent states, which includes all ocean waters beyond territorial limits. [Thanks to Gregory A. Tisher for this reference.]

Erinton, Democracy of -- {1}

Leigh Creighton, "The Great Emporer [sic] Genghis Khan the Semi-Sane," declared a "Democracy of Erinton" in February of 1996. It consists of a 12x12' area in Tucson, Arizona. It seems to have been an attempt to get his name on this page.

Fira, People's Republic of -- {1}

Fira was founded by Frédéric Maugey, a friend of Talossa's King Robert I, at his home in Rueil-Malmaison, near Paris, France, in November 1981. Originally located behind "a door nobody has ever seen" in Maugey's bedroom, early Fira claimed a population of 111,000 ruled over by imaginary generals. Fira joined Talossa on 6 August 1982 in annexing some small islands off the coast of Brittany. Major changes occurred on 30 August 1982 when Maugey formally relocated Fira in his bedroom and named himself "President for Life" and head of the "Supreme Soviet of the People's Republic of Fira." A convoluted government flow-chart was issued in October. Fira joined the League of Secessionist States in January of 1983, but Maugey, who had also been granted Talossan citizenship, concentrated thereafter on Talossan politics and Fira disappeared.

Freedonia, Kingdom of -- {2}

Freedonia was established in Philadelphia, PA (USA) in December of 1995, and has a political system strongly reminiscent of Great Britain. It defines itself as "a nation of people committed to creating a viable place where we and our children can live and prosper economically and with mutual civic freedoms." The King, Brett I (born 30 June 1962), has a veto. There are numerous jobs and positions named in the country's official web page, and there are at least two other citizens. Certain phrases in the wording of the web page indicate that the country was inspired, at least in part, by the Kingdom of Talossa (q.v.). [Thanks to Mark Hamilton of Talossa for this information.]

Frobnia, People's Republic of -- {1}

According to information provided by San Serriffe's (q.v.) home page, the People's Republic of Frobnia was founded in April of 1994, by some people from Ohio who invaded Florida and took over a place north of Tampa "which exuded precious Slack." The country claims an ancient history dating back to 1725. Its "current benevolent dictator" is identified only as President-For-Life Rev. Gypsy Joker, KSC, IM, Earl of 5's, who lives in Holiday, Florida. He can be reached by e-mail.

Garabond, Independent State of -- {1}

In 1991, inspired by reading Strauss's book How to Start Your Own Country, Gregory Tisher, a high-school freshman, declared his house and yard the Independent State of Garabond (IS-G), under a Grand Duchess with Tisher as Minister of State and de facto ruler. He designed a Great Seal and a Charter of Government, and made plans for other trinkets of state before losing interest. His friends created an Empire of Howieland (which conquered German classroom desks on a daily basis with the mantra "1-2-3-4 I declare a lightning war--Blitzkrieg!") and a Kingdom of Wolf. [Thanks to Greg Tisher for this information.]

Glennsylvania: Principality of -- {2}

Marc Desmond reports that in 1967 or 1968 he had a blind date with a girl who claimed that for the previous 10 years or so she had been a citizen and noble of the Principality of Glennsylvania, founded by a friend of hers named (of course) Glenn. The country would have been formed in the mid- to late- 1950's. It claimed sovereignty over his back yard and some adjacent woodland. Desmond recalls there were four "real" citizens and several imaginary ones. If any of our readers can provide further information on this Microstate, please e-mail us. [Information courtesy Marc Desmond.]

Glib Room Empire, The -- {1}

The Glib Room was founded by Gary Cone in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in September 1980. Its flag was green with the runic letter "G" in the canton; its anthem was Abba's Waterloo. Glib Room was founded in imitation of Talossa (q.v.) and was located in Cone's bedroom (plus a colony in his basement). In November 1980 the country was defeated in a humiliating war with Talossa, after Cone defaced the Talossan King's garage with black printer's ink. Cone's mother forced him to scrub off the ink in the middle of a snowstorm. He later signed a peace treaty acknowledging his defeat. After these so-called "Cone Wars," humiliating conditions were set for Cone to enter the League of Secessionist States (q.v.) but he never joined. Glib Room and Talossa opened diplomatic relations on 17 January 1981, but the Glib Room and its "Grand Owl" Cone faded. Cone resurfaced in 1982 to proclaim a "Confederation of One," but this disappeared sometime before 1986. Cone again reappeared on 12 August 1986 with yet another new nation, the Kingdom of Litheria, in a rooming house in what was now Maritiimi Province, Talossa. He threatened to declare war on Talossa for occupying his country, but in September 1986 Cone moved out of Talossa and Litheria evaporated for good. (HKT)

Hay-on-Wye {4}

Hay-on-Wye is a market town of 1,500 people on the Welsh-English border. Home of the Cusop- Dingle snail and the badger-faced sheep, Hay has in recent years seen its traditional ways and centuries-old buildings threatened by London bureaucrats and the creeping spread of chain stores. In the face of this attack, Hay resident Richard Booth, owner of the world's largest used-book store, declared himself King Richard I of Hay on 1 April 1977. King Richard has proven himself to be a rather mellow monarch, declaring that in Hay, "There must be no authority from anyone. Long live Anarchy! Prosperity to the People!" The new nation supports itself by selling dukedoms (25 l.) and earldoms (5 l.), as well as T-shirts and tote bags. As of 1996, King Richard is still around. He can be reached at: Booth Books, Hay Castle, Hay-on-Wye, UK. [TPA; current info courtesy Caius Hawkins.]

Houtbaai/Hout Bay {5}

Houtbaai (Hout Bay), a left-wing artist colony town near Capetown, South Africa and "a notorious haven for liberals," seceded from South Africa to protest that country's racial policies. The town declared itself a republic and vowed never to rejoin South Africa until Apartheid was abolished. The town apparently had some legal basis for this half-serious move under SA law. It issued passports which White South Africans used to visit neighboring countries which did not recognize SA passports. Presumably, since the election of Nelson Mandela, this "Republic" has ceased to be, but their very attractive and professional passports are still for sale. [Information courtesy Drew Chilton, Norman Sandfield, Hannes Marais.]

Hutt River Province Principality {5}

Wheat farmer (now Prince) Leonard George Casley founded this Micronation on 18,500 acres of land in Western Australia, 350 miles from Perth, in 1970, after Australia imposed a wheat quota he couldn't live with. The country now issues stamps and currency of its own devising. The principality's main business is serving tourists. The holiday commemorating the Anniversary of the Secession is held on 21 April. While Prince Leonard remains its head of state, business is conducted by the Prince Regent, Prince Kevin. Hutt River Province is beyond a doubt the world's most profitable Micronation. Attempts by Talossa to establish diplomatic relations have been answered by a barrage of stamp catalogues and offers to sell us ambassadorships and titles of nobility, but a vast amount of information is available at the Hutt River Province web page. Because of all its commercialism, there has been a recent (July, 1996) schism; see "Cascadia," above.

Identidem de Lati {2}

Inspired (at least in part) by the saga of Talossa, on 22 February 1996 Thomas Rigo Haug announced that the Empire of Identidem de Lati was planning to declare independence on 21 April 1996, with himself as Emperor Thomas I. Its land area was estimated at 24.57 square metres, but this will "drastically increase" at some future date. The location is somewhere on or near the American East Coast. The country's flag is a deep blue field with a green saltire, bearing the country's seal; the motto is Semper Fortis, Semper Placatus" (always strong, always peaceful). Latin is the official language although English, German and Spanish are "accepted." As promised, on 21 April 1996, Identidem de Lati formally declared independence and opened a web site. The country has an elaborate system of government involving elections, separation of powers, etc., all currently staffed by one person; but Haug is soliciting new citizens.

Imperial Jahn Empire (KJK) {1}

John Jahn, a high school friend of the King of Talossa (q.v.) and of somewhat Nazi leanings at the time, set up the Imperial Jahn Empire or Kaiserliches Jahn Königreich (KJK) on 25 November 1980. It had a red, white and black flag with Third Reich overtones which combined the letter "J" with a swastika. The next day the KJK joined the League of Secessionist States (LOSS; q.v). It was reported on 7 January 1981 that the KJK was "dead." Jahn became a Talossan citizen in early 1983 and after moderating considerably, served that nation with distinction.

Justus Township {5}

One of a growing number of "sovereign" right-wing communities is Justus Township, located near Jordan, Montana. According to a CNN Online report dated 26 March 1996, a group of ranchers who went out of business in the 1980's, led by LeRoy Schweitzer, have formed a society called the "Freemen." They don't believe in the legitimacy of the US Government, and refuse to pay taxes or even renew their drivers' licences. They have proclaimed "Justus Township" (pronounced 'justice') an independent "country," with its own laws and courts, and have threatened to kill anyone who gets in their way. Schweitzer has been arrested for various fraud schemes, and in June of 1996 the entire "country" was arrested by the Feds. This group was obviously a money-making scheme, but in many ways resembled the Branch Davidian outfit at Waco, Texas, which blew itself up some years back. The Waco group reportedly flew its own flag and claimed "sovereign" rights. Even a hobby like Micronationalism has its deadly fringe. [Information courtesy Sean D. Hert]

KugelMugel {3}

A Finnish magazine reports the existence of a Micronation called "KugelMugel," which is located in Vienna, Austria, near a huge amusement park. On the site there is a house shaped in a perfect sphere ("Kugel" is "sphere" in German), and that is where the leader of KugelMugel lives. The country issues passports to its citizens. [Source: Sami Laitala, of Tampere, Finland.]

Laputa {2}

Apparently organized by Werner Heise of München, Bavaria, Laputa claims to be located on the (apparently imaginary) North Pacific island of that name 'discovered' by Lemuel Gulliver in the novel Gulliver's Travels. It claims dominion over the whole northern hemisphere. Its ruler is President Roman Bold, "President of the Provisional Laputian Revolutionary Council." The country fought a war with San Serriffe (q.v.), which unconditionally surrendered. Laputa defines its government as a "pornocracy" (la puta in Spanish means "the whore") and there are several Dr. Strangelove references in the country's propaganda (Laputa was the primary target for the ill-fated bomber mission in the film). The country recently refused to join the League of Secessionist States.

League of Secessionist States (LOSS)

Not a Micronation per se, the LOSS was an attempt to unite all existing Micronations into a common front against so-called reality. The LOSS was a pact between the Kingdom of Talossa, the Kingdom of Thord, and the Imperial Jahn Empire, mostly to oppose the Glib Room Empire but also to promote "World Singular Secession," at that time the official ideology of Talossa. It proclaimed that "world peace" would arise when all people seceded from their home countries and created "a world of 10,000,000,000 nations." After January of 1981, when the Imperial Jahn Empire died and Thord went inactive, the LOSS was shelved, but it was revived in January of 1983 as a pact between Talossa and Fira. This evolved into a "Miniature Alliance and Treaty Organization" (MATO) but when Fira expired later that year, so did the LOSS/MATO. Talossa thereafter abandoned "World Singular Secession" as a goal for which to strive.

Recent developments have excited interest among some Micronations for re-establishing the LOSS as a forum for unconditional contact between Micronations. At present these efforts are being directed by Talossa.

League of Unrecognized Nations (LUN)

Of similar purpose to the earlier LOSS, the League of Unrecognized Nations was an attempt to unite or at least identify all Micronations in a common front. The LUN was the brainchild of San Serriffe's James A. Archer and apparently was created in 1995; as of July 1996, it was defunct. The LUN did not allow countries to join it unless they promised "not [to] recognize any non-member nations." This kept secessionist states with serious pretentions from affiliating with the LUN, since that would prevent them from recognizing, say, the United States.

Madawaska, Republic of -- {5}

The sovereign "Republic of Madawaska" or "République de Madawaska," has its capital in Edmundston, New Brunswick, Canada. Madawaska is a border region between New Brunswick, Québec, and Maine, whose status was supposedly settled in 1842 by a treaty between the US and Britain. However, residents adopted the unofficial territory, with its own dialect and flag, as their Republic. La Foire brayonne," a festival from late July to early August, honours the Republic. If anyone can provide more information on Madawaska, such as when it began its secession, please email me! [Thanks to Michael A. Chaplin for this information.]

Mingovia {2}

Mingovia (for "MINimum GOVernment") seems to be another Libertarian-inspired model country, like Oceania, below. [Link courtesy C. David Eagle.]

Minerva, Republic of -- {5}

Established in 1972 by a declaration of sovereignty by a group of Californians, this Micronation claims dominion over two coral reefs 17 miles apart in the South Pacific--although they disappear at high tide. Minerva (nicknamed "the Land of the Rising Atoll") is some 3,400 miles southwest of Honolulu and 915 miles northeast of Auckland, New Zealand. President Morris C. "Bud" Davis, a former project engineer with North American Rockwell, runs his domain from the living room of his suburban home in Gustine, California. Originally the plan was to attract a population of 60,000 to a fancy sea resort, called Sea City, which was to be constructed on the reefs, where residents would have "no taxation, welfare, subsidies, or any other form of economic interventionism." Since the main income was to be from the registration of international cargo ships, the Sea City project foundered for lack of funds. A ship was, however, purchased to carry sand out to the homeland for "a major landfill project." Minerva also had a political skirmish with the Republic of Tonga over ownership of the reefs that nearly led to war. When Davis made his original claim by building a small stone tower on one reef, with a flasher on it and the Minervan flag (a torch on a blue field), King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV set sail from Tonga 200 miles to the northeast aboard the ship Olovaba with the 100-man Tonga Defence Force (they are recruited from among prisoners). They tore down the flag and read a Tongan proclamation of sovereignty. Said Davis, "We can't for the life of us understand why the king should suddenly decide he wants the reefs." While Minerva remains uninhabited, the conflict is dormant. (TPA)

Monvainia {1}

A "Lord Yankot Treusduk Akerwitz" who wishes to remain anonymous and his brother invented the Empire of Monvainia in 1972 in the back seat of their parents' station wagon during a trip across the US. They did not declare independence until 1974, when they lived in California. A constitution was written, dated 7 May 1976, which proclaimed Monvainia a "wonderland." In 1996 "Akerwitz" reported 35 citizens. "My memoirs as the first and only Emporer [sic] of Monvainia are sitting in a box awaiting the time to actually write it," he states.

Morac-Songhrati-Meads, Republic of -- {3}

This Micronation has its capital on Meads Island in the South China Sea, an island not marked in standard atlases. In 1914 Franklin M. Meads proclaimed the "Kingdom of Humanity" and named Willis Alva Bryant "King Willi." King Willi was later reported drowned in a hurricane. Since 1954, Franklin's grandson Morton has run the "Monarchical Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads" and claimed all territory in a 700-mile sweep of water between the Philippines and Vietnam. Its government renamed these waters the Humanity Sea and threatened to confiscate an oil rig set up by the Shell Oil Company. Any person making claims on property of the republic risks the death penalty. The national flag is yellow and black with two figs in a white star, the national anthem is Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, and the motto is "Conscience, Intelligence, Courage, Principia Non Homines." (TPA, SPJ, Strauss 147)

Mosquito Shore and Nation {2}

The US State Department's "Ephemeral States" file contains a reference to a Mosquito Shore and Nation, on the east coast of Central America. No further information is available. The secession appears to predate the late Sandinista troubles in Nicaragua. However, during the Sandinista rule, the Miskito Indians, led by Brooklyn Rivera, declared their independence (again?) basing their claim on the fact they were colonized by England rather than Spain and many of them speak an English creole. It has been reported that Rivera and the Miskitos have made up with the Nicaraguan government. (SPJ; John Cowan)

Navassa Island

This is a one-square-mile island 32 miles west of Haiti, in the direction of Jamaica, whose coast consists of 60-foot cliffs. The US Coast Guard claims responsibility for it, but David P. Billington declared himself King, and maintains a web site for Navassa Island. There is also a constitution for the country, but it makes no provision for royalty. (Strauss 109; information from David Billington.)

New Australia {5}

"New Australia" was the brainchild of William Lane, an English-born Australian journalist and 1,000 of his followers, who believed that people with high ideals could create a perfectly equal society if removed from corrupting influences. To that end, Lane's "New Australian Co-Operative Settlement Association" managed to obtain 400,000 acres of free land from the government of Paraguay on which to build their utopian settlement, which began development around 1892. But internal conflicts, exacerbated by Lane's authoritarian sense of what was right, doomed the colony, which began to break up. In 1894 Lane attempted a second utopian settlement, "Cosme," 20 miles away. But by 1899 Lane had gone back to journalism. (Information from Chronicle of Australia, 1993 [Chronicle Australasia Pty Ltd, Victoria]; thanks to Evan Gallagher.)

Nikhedonia {2}

Somewhere in or around Montréal, Québec, the Kingdom of Nikhedonia declared independence in mid-1996. They have a web site. Nikhedonia is one of several micronations formed in Canada since the Montréal Gazette featured an article about the Kingdom of Talossa (q.v.) and the micronation movement.

Nutopia {1}

According to the liner notes for his album "Mind Games," ex-Beatle John Lennon founded the "conceptual country" of Nutopia on April Fool's Day, 1973. This was in the midst of his legal troubles with the U.S. immigration authorities, and he declared himself a citizen of Nutopia, claimed diplomatic immunity, and demanded a seat at the U.N. According to Lennon, Nutopia was a country without borders or passports, and citizenship could be obtained "by declaration of your awareness of NUTOPIA." The country had no laws except for "cosmic" ones. The album also contains the Nutopian International Anthem, which consists of three seconds of silence. [Information courtesy Michael S. Carpenter.]

Oceania {4}

Some Libertarians decided to form Oceania in February 1993, after one of them lost a race for State Senate in Nevada. Eric Klien, her campaign manager, claimed fraud but was met by "death threats and intimidation by goons." (Which in Libertarian lingo probably means a census taker came within a mile of his house.) Klien "gave up on the U.S." at that point and floated the plan for Oceania, an artificial Caribbean island 50 miles north of Panama in a supposedly hurricane-proof zone, which could be a new sovereign nation and "capitalist paradise." The project collapsed in April of 1994 but was recently revived. Once the country is built, it will be a Libertarian haven for drug-abusers, tax-evaders and whoever else wants to live there. Taxation and zoning laws will be banned. Somehow, "majority-rule" will be outlawed as well, though people can be punished by exile. Oceania is named for the totalitarian country in Orwell's 1984, though it claims to hold different ideals. There are a number of (fairly slow) Oceania-related web sites. The official one is http://oceania.org/. [Info courtesy Erwin Wodarczak.]

Oceanus {3}

This is the world's largest Micronation, taking up all the seas of the world beyond national 3-mile limits. It includes, for example, the Mediterranean, but not the Suez and Panama Canals. Chief Executive and self-styled Admiral of Oceanus, Ed Welles, of Manset, Maine, plans to patrol his empire with PT boats and submarines abetted by a small air force. Income, as with Minerva (q.v.), would come from international ship registration. This cannot begin, however, until all the nations of the world agree to give Ed Welles sovereignty over the seas. As for his nation's legal status, Welles asks, "Look, how does any government start out? Somebody says, 'Pay me taxes,' and he's in business. The U.S.A. said, 'We exist,' and the country was born. In 1970 eight people said, 'We are,' and there was Oceanus.'" Welles issues passports intended to end the problems of stateless persons, because anyone can get one, but there has been no official recognition. Oceanus also issues amateur radio broadcasting licences and hopes the Federal Communications Commission will object, because "if they give us any flak, they are recognizing us." Welles runs his empire from a 93-foot sailing schooner, which also serves as Oceanus' supreme court building in which he has charged oil companies with polluting his territory with spills. All nations are welcome, Welles says, to participate in the laws of the Oceanus constitution for the rule of the seas. (TPA)

Patria {1}

Patria is an imaginary country, created in 1973/74 by Michael Brooker of Ontario, Canada. It does not claim to actually exist; it is more a mental exercise. There is an elaborate constitution, political parties, and so forth; the country has a vague "claim" on the Spratly Islands (see Morac-Songhrati-Meads, above) but its author, a convert to Hinduism, states that "if I had to put it on a map, it would most likely be in Central Asia, the alleged home of the Indo-European speakers."

Piotr {1}

The existence of Piotr (which means "Peter" in Russian) was revealed in a letter from Frédéric Maugey (see Fira) to Talossa's King Robert I dated 8 February 1983. The new Micronation was run by Maugey's cousin, Vincent Jacob, and was probably located somewhere in France. No further information is available.

Porto Claro, Kingdom of -- {3}

The Kingdom of Porto Claro (O Reino do Porto Claro) is located in a very small town (Porto Claro) on the border between Brazil and French Guyana, at the mouth of the Oiapoque river. It claims the adjacent territory of French Guyana. The country was created in 1992 by a group of high school students from Rio de Janeiro, but traces its history back to 1900 when (they maintain) a declaration of independence was issued. The current monarch is King Leonardo VI, and Alfonso Damião is the Prime Minister. The country claims a population of 100,000 of which 180 are "main characters." The Kingdom has established its own web site, in English, although the official language of the country is Portuguese. Porto Claro appears to be a vibrant multiperson micronation with an imaginative pre-1992 pre-history grafted on. [Information courtesy T. Daniel Aguiar, the Porto Claro Information Minister.]

Riesenguthland-Ellermark, Kingdom of -- {3}

The Kingdom of Riesenguthland-Ellermark declared its independence from Germany on 18 November 1988 under the absolute rule of King Tosti (a.k.a. Torsten Ott). The country lists around 30 citizens and claims small patches of land in and around Düsseldorf, Germany. KRE issues passports and an irregular online newspaper, and has maintained a web site since October 1995. The country is an absolute monarchy, and is currently advertising for a new queen. In 1996 it joined the League of Secessionist States.

Rumbiana {2}

In an e-mail message dated 2 March 1996, Alessandro Roscini of the Repubblica Rumbiana Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced the existence of his country, apparently based in Italy. The country claimed to be a "member of the ICIS--International Council of Independent States, and is in the process of being evaluated by the Council of Oneiric Nations." More information as it becomes available.

Ruritarian Republics, Union of -- {2}

The Union of Ruritarian Republics was formed on 7 August 1996 as a fusion of three other Micronation projects, the Confederate States of America (see above), the United Provinces of Utopia, and SPAM. It describes itself as a "formerly fictitious nation," and has a web page which explains its history and objectives. The country claims 30 citizens and bits of land scattered around the world from Truk and Kiribati in the Pacific, to Kaliningrad Oblast (the little bit of Russia sandwiched between Lithuania and Poland) in Europe. The country is ruled by a "Troika" of which Rob Hart, former President of the CSA, seems to be the dominant figure.

San Serriffe: Frobnian Territory of -- {1}

The Frobnian Territory of San Serriffe claimed territories in Arizona, as well as an ancient history involving Mbooky-Mvookies and the Justified Ancients of Mu-Mu. It was created on 14 June 1995 when Major General James A. Archer (who was an Ambassador from Frobnia; see above) and an army of invisible people declared that they had conquered the cities of Chandler and Gilbert, Arizona, and set up San Serriffe. According to the country's very professional home page, government offices were staffed by several imaginary people. There were a number of Monty Python references in the country's propaganda. Archer could be reached by e-mail but rarely answered requests for further information, and by July of 1996 had changed his web site to a totally unrelated topic. San Serriffe is presumably defunct.

Sandaria, Co-Principality of -- {2}

Sandaria was founded on 17 April 1990 by Elected Crown Prince Jordan Bouray, and claims the entire continent of Antarctica. There is a complex government structure, and the country is actively soliciting people to become citizens. Sandaria is a member of the League of Secessionist States. More info is available at the country's web site.

Saya de Malha, Principality of -- {3}

Saya de Malha is a mysterious place; our only contact with it is from someone in France who refuses to use his real name and who speaks neither English nor French very well. "O-Marion" claims that Saya de Malha is a sandbar in the middle of the Indian Ocean which was declared a sovereign nation by Pierre Metger, of French aristocratic stock, on 5 January 1989. The country claims 140 citizens in Mauritius, South Africa, Canada, Australia and France. The flag is white with an azure cross. Saya de Malha claims to be a "zone of world peace designated by the U.N." Little more is known about it. [Information courtesy "O-Marion."]

Scottland {1}

Scottland is not a country per se, but is rather a fan club for comedy actor Scott Thompson, of The Kids in the Hall, and a native of Canada (another fake country). The fan club is organized like a country--with Scott as its 'Queen'-- and features elections and political parties run by its members. Citizenship in Scottland is available at its web site, and registered citizens obtain passwords, giving them access to other, more intimate, areas.

Seborga, Principality of -- {5}

Recently (early 1996?) the village of Seborga, a hamlet of 300 people in northern Italy near the Austrian border, voted almost unanimously to secede from Italy and set up an independent, sovereign Principality. The town was a sovereign city-state from 954 until it joined Italy in 1870. Prince Giorgio I was elected its monarch upon secession from Italy. The country has received international publicity, and reportedly San Marino has recognized it as independent. Some vagabond artists on the Internet have set up a counterfeit Seborgan web page, but this has been strongly denounced by the Seborgan government, so we're refusing to provide the link. If anyone has any further information about Seborga, please e-mail me!

Sealand, Principality of -- {5}

One of the tiniest Micronations, Sealand, lying 6 miles off the coast of Felixtowe, Essex, England, in the English Channel, is the size of a baseball diamond and consists of a steel platform created during World War Two as a radar and gun installation, known as a "Maunsell Fort." The fort, called "Roughs Tower," was taken over around 1966 by two British businessmen, Roy Bates and Ronan O'Rahilly. O'Rahilly was the head of the pirate radio station "Radio Caroline" and Bates--an infamous tax-evader--was the former owner of a similar venture, "Radio Essex." The two men planned to seize the fort and convert it into a "fun palace," a "health farm" for exhausted show business people and insomniacs. However, the two men had a falling out, and Roy Bates took control of the tower. O'Rahilly's men attempted to seize control in June of 1967, but were repulsed by Bates' men, who defended the tower with guns, Molotov cocktails, petrol bombs, and even a flame-thrower! By August, the dispute had escalated and a detachment of Royal Marine commandos was preparing to retake the tower for Britain. The British government ordered Bates to surrender the tower "to prevent it falling into the hands of foreign interests," but Bates vowed to defend the tower with force.

At this point, Roy Bates declared the tower an independent nation, "The Principality of Sealand," on 2 September 1967. According to one witness, Bates told British officials: "This has nothing to do with you. I can tell them to murder someone if I want to. I am the person responsible for the law in Sealand." By October of 1968 the standoff was still continuing. Roy Bates was hauled into court on guns charges, but was acquitted when the court ruled that Roughs Tower was outside British territorial waters. It is reported that Prince Roy once warded off British customs craft by firing a rifle over their bows. Sealand was reportedly still going strong in 1984, although one source claims Bates had to abandon the territory in the early 1990's because of rough weather. (TPA; World War Two magazine, March 1996; The Times [London], June 1967-October 1968; Strauss 132-138)

Sedang, Kingdom of The -- {3}

The Kingdom of the Sedang was founded by French adventurer Charles Marie David de Mayréna in Indo-China in 1888. Mayréna, as King Marie I, ruled from 1888 to 1890. In November 1995, persons related to those ethnic groups who ruled or lived in Sedang--French, Chinese, Vietnamese, Europeans--founded the Assembly for the Restoration of the Sedang Nobility. Derwin J.K.W. Mak, who lives in Toronto, Ontario, was elected Prince Regent and Duke of Sedang. They are re-establishing the Sedang nobility as rulers-in-exile and provide noble titles to those who help them out, financially or otherwise. (Their literature reads as if they sell noble titles outright, like Hutt River Province, but the Sedang administration vehemently denies any such pecuniary interest.) Unlike most Micronation projects, Sedang openly disavows any claims to territory and recognizes Vietnamese sovereignty over the former dominions of King Marie. [Information courtesy D.J.K.W. Mak.]

Talossa, Kingdom of -- {4}

In 1979, high-school sophomore Robert Ben Madison--a.k.a. King Robert I--led the Kingdom of Talossa to its sovereign independence from the USA. During its first 18 months of existence, Talossa was a one-kid state in its King's bedroom with a hand-written newspaper, Støtanneu, describing the details of the latest wars, colonial acquisitions, and the remarkable Talossan language--a fusion of French, English, Spanish, Berber, Icelandic, etc. In 1981, several friends became "honorary citizens" after they became interested in his musings. Talossa shifted from one-man fantasy to growing community, and Talossa became a constitutional monarchy in 1985. Altogether some 55 people have become involved in Talossa, which today has a flourishing, free-wheeling democracy. In 1983 the country proclaimed dominion over the whole East Side of Milwaukee; the 40,000 native inhabitants or Cestoûrs are mostly ignorant of this fact. Talossans publish several newspapers and welcome new citizens. Talossa is a member of the League of Secessionist States. Much more information is available at the country's web site, linked above.

Texas, Republic of -- {5}

In 1995 a group of right-wing anti-government tax protesters in Texas claimed to have discovered legal evidence that the 1845 annexation of Texas by the United States was invalid, due (among other reasons) to a lack of a quorum in Congress during the annexation vote. On 13 December 1995 they declared a provisional government for the Republic of Texas, and filed suit in various courts for control of the entire state. They also sent letters to embassies, consulates, the World Court, and the United Nations. A provisional government was set up under John C. VanKirk, of San Antonio. The original Republic of Texas Constitution was revived, but the group amended it with new articles about "common law" and other antigovernment preoccupations. The stated aim of the movement is to "cast off the chains of oppression and despair of the military, corporate demagogues that seized the United States in 1865."

Tetiti, Maori Kingdom of -- {3}

To give Maori people, "a race that is speeding to oblivion," a place "to call their own, their rightful place in the sun," King and Absolute Ruler Michael Heatara signed a declaration of independence in 1985 establishing the Maori Kingdom of Tetiti Islands in the South Pacific. His special envoy offered the U.S. a long-term lease on one island, situated about 500 miles off the New Zealand coast. The territory claimed may be identical to New Zealand's Chatham Islands. (SPJ)

Thord, Glorious Kingdom of -- {2}

Thord was founded by John C. Eiffler on 25 November 1980 as another of the Milwaukee, Wisconsin-based secessionist nations inspired by Talossa. It immediately joined the League of Secessionist States. Its flag was black over red, with a yellow rubber chicken head in the centre. Eiffler's "Glorious Kingdom of Thord" soon went dormant but was revived on 29 March 1983. Its handwritten newspaper, Zeitung, lasted a couple of issues; it ceased on April 1st. Thord's short constitution made Eiffler absolute monarch. On 4 May 1983 the Talossan newspaper Støtanneu reported that Thord and Talossa were discussing a possible "joint annexation of the Glib Room," but Thord soon collapsed for good, with Eiffler becoming a Talossan citizen in 1985.

Tierra del Mar, Republic of -- {3}

President and Acting Secretary of State Leicester Hemingway (younger brother of noted author Ernest) claimed Christmas Island, a 100-yard stretch of sand in the Bahamas, as his own republic in 1973. Its constitution is adopted word-for-word from that of the United States. (TPA)

True Hug Nation

One of the briefest entries in the US State Department's file on "ephemeral states" mentions a True Hug Nation. There is nothing in the file to tell where it is or what it is. (SPJ)

Yevolkian Free State {1}

William Warfield Holbrook Glaefke, an eccentric professional student and textile heir from Georgia, announced his Jevolkanische Freistaat or Yevolkian Free State in a letter to Talossa's King Robert I dated 17 June 1985. His Micronation was located on the Baltic Sea but had been occupied by "Soviet and Polish Marxist-Leninist aggressors." Glaefke claimed membership in a persecuted Yevolkian ethnic group, and he claimed that the Yevolkian "Judeo-Christian welfare society" had been suppressed by a Communist "invasion" in August of 1977. No further information is available.


This page is provided for your information by the Progressive Conservative Party of Talossa and is current through 1 September 1996. Direct email contact with the Government of the Kingdom of Talossa can be made at talossa@execpc.com.


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