Haute Priest Couture: Dressed to Kill!
Or, All dressed up with nothing to kill?
A is for "alb", Z is for "zuchetto"
The following lists the garments required for the Catholic clergy. A few of these (3-5) may have been dropped after the Vatican II changes, but conflicting accounts make that unclear. Nearly all of these are still available from vestment manufacturers and suppliers indicating that they are still being used.
The Anglican/Episcopalian, Protestant, and Lutheran clergy have also continued the use of some of these vestments.
birretta - "A square cap with three ridges or peaks on its upper surface, worn by clerics of all grades from cardinals downwards. The use of such a cap is prescribed by the rubrics both at solemn Mass and in other ecclesiastical functions. Its origin is somewhere in the 15th Century. It may be said in general that the biretta is worn in processions and when seated, as also when the priest is performing any act of jurisdiction, e. g. reconciling a convert. The college cap and ecclesiastical biretta have probably developed from the same original, but along different lines."
alb: a white vestment reaching the feet, worn over the cassock during Mass
"It was made . . . of white linen, to symbolize the self-denial and chastity befitting a priest. It hung down to the ankles, to remind him that he was bound to practice good works to his life's end.
. . . a white linen tunic also formed part of the ordinary attire of both Romans and Greeks under the Empire, and most modern authorities, e.g. Duchesne and Braun, think it needless to look further for the origin of our alb."
amice: square of white linen worn by the celebrant priest on the head, or around the neck
"A short linen cloth, square or oblong in shape and, like the other sacerdotal vestments, needing to be blessed before use. The purpose of this vestment, which is the first to be put on by the priest in vesting for the Mass, is to cover the shoulders, and originally also the head, of the wearer."
"there is considerable difference of opinion whether it was in the beginning a neck cloth introduced for reasons of seemliness, to hide the bare throat; or again a kerchief which protected the richer vestment from the perspiration so apt in southern climates to stream from the face and neck, or perhaps a winter muffler protecting the throat of those who, in the interests of church music, had to take care of their voices."
cassock: long, close-fitting tunic, usually black, buttoning up to the neck and reaching the feet
" In the sixth and following centuries we find that in Rome and in countries near Rome the civil dress of the clergy began markedly to differ from that of the laity, the reason probably being that the former adhered to the old Roman type of costume with its long tunic and voluminous cloak, representing the toga, whereas the laity were increasingly inclined to adopt the short tunic, with breeches and mantle, of the gens braccata, i. e. the Northern barbarians, who were now the masters of Italy."
" . . . synodal decrees became gradually more frequent, restraining in various ways the tendency of the clergy to adopt the current fashion of worldly attire."
"The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) laid down the principle that clerics must wear garments closed in front and free from extravagance as to length. . . . Ornamental appendages, cloth of red or green colour, brooches (fibul) to fasten their cloaks, and the wearing of sleeved copes (capp manicat), either at Office or at other times, are all forbidden by the same enactment."
chasuble: sleeveless vestment worn over alb and stole by the celebrant at Mass. The most basic form is a circle or oval with a hole cut for the head. It is usually the appropriate liturgical colour
"Nearly all ecclesiologists are now agreed that liturgical costume was simply an adaptation of the secular attire commonly worn throughout the Roman Empire in the early Christian centuries."
"Like the other sacred vestments the chasuble, before use, requires to be blessed by a priest who has faculties for that purpose. When assumed in vesting for Mass, the act is accompanied with a prayer which speaks of the chasuble as the "yoke of Christ". But another symbolism is indicated by the form attached to the bestowal of the chasuble in the ordination services: "Receive", says the bishop, "the priestly vestment, by which is signified charity.""
cassock: The `vestis talaris' a close fitting garment reaching to the heels, fastened down the front with numerous small buttons; the ecclesiastical uniform of all clerics except those who being members of orders or congregations have a distinctive habit. The cassock of the pope is white, of cardinals red, of bishops and other prelates purple, and every body else black.
chimere: the heavy, usually black bishop's robe, worn over the rochet as part of the ordinary dress. It has attached 'lawn sleeves' - puffy white linen
"Chimere - A sleeveless gown usually of red, but sometimes of black material of quality and derived from the Spanish 'Zammarvia' - a twelfth-century riding cloak. It is an upper robe of a Bishop. This garment serves as a symbol of the mantle of a prophet. The chimere is only worn by the Bishop because it signifies him as chief proclaimer and defender of the faith in the apostolic tradition."
cincture: the girdle, either a rope or a sash worn as a belt
"Sincture - A square band that is worn around the waist, containing the Bishop's Seal or Church symbol. Is able to be worn not only by the Bishop but by other members of the Church including; Pastors, Ministers and Choir Members."
cope: a long, semi-circular cloak without sleeves, fastened by the morse. It is the processional vestment of the bishop.
" . . . in their origin cope and chasuble were identical, the chasuble being only a cope with its edges sewn together".
dalmatic: a wide-sleeved loose, long vestment with slit sides, worn by deacons and bishops
"At Rome, and throughout Italy, the dalmatic is a robe with wide sleeves; it reaches to the knees, is closed in front, and is open on the sides as far as the shoulder. Outside of Italy it is customary to slit the under side of the sleeves so that the dalmatic becomes a mantle like a scapular with an opening for the head and two square pieces of the material falling from the shoulder over the upper arm. The distinctive ornamentation of the vestment consists of two vertical stripes running from the shoulder to the hem; according to Roman usage these stripes are narrow and united at the bottom by two narrow cross-stripes. Outside of Rome the vertical stripes are quite broad and the cross-piece is on the upper part of the garment. There are no regulations as to the material of the dalmatic; it is generally made of silk corresponding to that of the chasuble of the priest, with which it must agree in colour, as the ordinances concerning liturgical colours include the dalmatic."
"The dalmatic was taken from a garment of the same name, which originated, to judge from the designation, in Dalmatia, and which came into common use at Rome probably in the course of the second century. . . . It was part of the clothing of the higher classes; consequently it is not surprising that it was taken into ecclesiastical use and afterwards became a liturgical vestment. The earliest symbolical interpretations of the dalmatic occur at the beginning of the ninth century, in the writings of Rabanus (Hrabanus) Maurus and Amalarius of Metz. On account of the cruciform shape and the red ornamental stripes, Rabanus Maurus regarded it as symbolical of the sufferings of Christ and said that the vestment admonished the servant of the altar to offer himself as an acceptable sacrifice to God. Amalarius saw in the white colour a symbol of purity of soul, and in the red stripes the emblem of love for one's neighbour."
maniple: a strip of cloth, worn over the right arm during Mass
"Originally it was a cloth of fine quality to wipe away perspiration, or an ornamental handkerchief which was seldom put into actual use, but was generally carried in the hand as an ornament. Ornamental handkerchiefs or cloths of this kind were carried by people of rank in ordinary life."
mitre: the distinctive headgear of a bishop
" The right to wear the mitre belongs by law only to the pope, the cardinals, and the bishops. Others require for its use a special papal privilege."
"The right also belonged to the German emperor."
"A large number of mitres of the later Middle Ages have been preserved, but they all belong to the third form of mitre. Many have very costly ornamentation. For even in medieval times it, was a favourite custom to ornament especially the mitre with embroidery, rich bands (aurifrisia), pearls, precious stones, small ornamental disks of the precious metals; and even to use painting. Besides several hundred large and small pearls, a mitre of the late Middle Ages in St. Peter's at Salsburg is also ornamented with about five hundred more or less costly precious stones; it weighs over five and a half pounds. Similar mitres are also mentioned in the inventory of 1295 of Boniface VIII. Eight medieval mitres are preserved in the cathedral of Halberstadt. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the mitre was ornamented with rich, heavy embroidery in gold, which gave it a still more imposing appearance. A mitre of the eighteenth century preserved in the cathedral treasury at Limburg-on-the-Lahn is remarkable for the large number of precious stones that adorn it."
"The mitre is a kind of folding-cap. It consists of two like parts, each stiffened by a lining and rising to a peak; these are sewn together on the sides, but are united above by a piece of material thet can fold together. Two lappets trimmed on the ends with fringe hang down from the back. The mitre is, theoretically, always supposed to be white. The official "Cæremoniale Romanum" distinguishes three kinds of mitres: the mitra pretiosa, auriphrygiata, and simplex. The first two differ from each other only in the greater or less richness of the ornamentation; the mitra simplex, or simple mitre, is one of white silk or white linen entirely without ornament. The fringe on the lappets at the back should be red. The bishop must wear the mitra pretiosa on those days on which the hymn Te Deum is used in the Office, the mitre auriphrygiata in the seasons of Advent and Lent, on fast days and during penitential processions, the mitra simplex on Good Fridays, at funerals, and at the blessing of the candles on Candlemas-day. When bishops attend a general council, or are present at solemn pontifical acts of the pope, they wear a plain linen mitre, while the cardinals on occasions wear a simple mitre of silk damask."
"The pontifical mitre is of Roman origin: it is derived from a non-liturgical head-covering distinctive of the pope, the camelaucum, to which also the tiara is to be traced. . . . The coins of Sergius III (904-11) and of Benedict VII (974-83), on which St. Peter is portrayed wearing a camelaucum, give the cap the form of a cone, the original shape of the mitre. The camelaucum was worn by the pope principally during solemn processions. The mitre developed from the camelaucum in this way: in the course of the tenth century the pope began to wear this head-covering not merely during processions to the church, but also during the subsequent church service. Whether any influence was exerted by the recollection of the sacerdotal head-ornament of the high-priest of the Old Testament is not known, but probably not--at least there is no trace of any such influence. It was not until the mitre was universally worn by bishops that it was called an imitation of the Jewish sacerdotal head-ornament."
"Mitre - In England, the Miter was not worn in church until the Norman Conquest. It derives from the Phrygian worn by Roman freeman to cover their shaven heads and originally was a soft conical cap. It later became lower and 'ears' at the side of the head resulted from the absence of stiffening to the cap. By the middle of the twelfth century the cap was interlined and worn with the 'ears' or points, at front and back of the head, and the ribbons or streamers became the infulea of the lappets, to be seen at the back of the modern Miter. It is customary, although not necessary, that the Miter is made of matching material to the Cope and Chasuble, and that the orphrey arrangement is an inverted 'T'-shape (symbolic of the Crucifixion of St. Peter) and complements the material and color used for the Cope and Chasuble. The liturgical headdress is worn by Popes, Cardinals and Bishops. It is removed when the celebrant prays. The points symbolize the cloven tongues on the heads of the disciples on the day of the Pentecost and the streamers represent the everlasting living water that Christ offers to the believer."
orphrey: an embroidered band worn over the cope by a bishop
"Of the chasuble as now in common usage in the Western Church two principal types appear, which may for convenience be called the Roman and the French. The Roman is about 46 inches deep at the back and 30 inches wide. It is ornamented with orphreys forming a pillar behind and a tall cross in front, while the aperture for the neck is long and tapers downwards. The French type, also common in Germany and in a more debased form in Spain, is less ample and often artificially stiffened. It has a cross on the back and a pillar in front. In medieval chasubles these orphrey crosses often assume a Y form, and the crosses themselves seem really to have originated less from any symbolical purpose than from sartorial reasons connected with the cut and adjustment."
pallium: "a woollen vestment, consisting of a narrow band with short lappets, worn by archbishops. The equivalent of the orphrey . . ."
"The modern pallium is a circular band about two inches wide, worn about the neck, breast, and shoulders, and having two pendants, one hanging down in front and one behind. The pendants are about two inches wide and twelve inches long, and are weighted with small pieces of lead covered with black silk. The remainder of the pallium is made of white wool, part of which is supplied by two lambs presented annually as a tax by the Lateran Canons Regular to the Chapter of St. John on the feast of St. Agnes, solemnly blessed on the high altar of that church after the pontifical Mass, and then offered to the pope. The ornamentation of the pallium consists of six small black crosses -- one each on the breast and back, one on each shoulder, and one on each pendant. The crosses on the breast, back, and left shoulder are provided with a loop for the reception of a gold pin set with a precious stone. The pallium is worn over the chasuble."
"To trace it to an investiture of the emperor, to the ephod of the Jewish high-priest, or to a fabled mantle of St. Peter, is entirely inadmissible. The correct view may well be that the pallium was introduced as a liturgical badge of the pope, and it does not seem improbable that it was adopted in imitation of its counterpart, the pontifical omophorion, already in vogue in the Eastern Church."
" In the sixth century the pallium was the symbol of the papal office and the papal power, and for this reason Pope Felix transmitted his pallium to his archdeacon, when, contrary to custom, he nominated him his successor. On the other hand, when used by metropolitans, the pallium originally signified simply union with the Apostolic See, and was the symbol of the ornaments of virtue which should adorn the life of the wearer."
rochet: the surplice-like garment worn by bishops, canons and abbots.
"An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), and reaching to the knees. While bearing a general resemblance to the surplice, it is distinguished from that vestment by the shape of the sleeves; in the surplice these are at least fairly wide, while in the rochet they are always tight-fitting. The rochet is decorated with lace or embroidered borders--broader at the hem and narrower on the sleeves. To make the vestment entirely of tulle or lace is inconvenient, as is the inordinate use of plaits; in both cases, the vestment becomes too effeminate. The rochet is not a vestment pertaining to all clerics, like the surplice; it is distinctive of prelates, and may be worn by other ecclesiastics only when (as, e.g., in the case of cathedral chapters) the usus rochetti has been granted them by a special papal indult. That the rochet possesses no liturgical character is clear both from the Decree of Urban VII prefixed to the Roman Missal, and from an express decision of the Congregation of Rites (10 Jan., 1852), which declares that, in the administration of the sacraments, the rochet may not be used as a vestis sacra; in the administration of the sacraments, as well as at the conferring of the tonsure and the minor orders, use should be made of the surplice (cf. the decision of 31 May, 1817; 17 Sept., 1722; 16 April, 1831). However, as the rochet may be used by the properly privileged persons as choir-dress, it may be included among the liturgical vestments in the broad sense, like the biretta or the cappa magna. Prelates who do not belong to a religious order, should wear the rochet over the soutane during Mass in so far as this is convenient."
scapular: a short cloak worn by monks and friars, covering the shoulders, or two strips of cloth hanging down breast and back, joined at the shoulders, worn under clothing and indicates affiliation to religious order
"It consists essentially of a piece of cloth about the width of the breast from one shoulder to the other (i.e. about fourteen to eighteen inches), and of such a length that it reaches not quite to the feet in front and behind. There are also shorter forms of the scapular. In the middle is the opening for the head, the scapular thus hanging down from two narrow connecting segments resting on the shoulders. Originally the longitudinal segments of cloth were connected by cross segments passing under the arms -- a form which exists even today. In former times also two segments of cloth hung over the shoulders, which they covered, and thus formed a cross with the longitudinal segments over the breast and back (cf. P.L., CIII, 1231, editorial note)."
"Especially the analabus but also the scapular was often called simply crux (cross) on account of its shape, and symbolism introduced accordingly. It was thus natural to term the scapular jugum Christi (the yoke of Christ); it was also called scutum (shield), as it was laid over the head, which it originally covered and protected with one portion (from which the hood afterwards developed)."
stole: a narrow strip of linen worn around the neck (or over the left shoulder by the deacon), it extends below the knees
"A liturgical vestment composed of a strip of material from two to four inches wide and about eighty inches long. It has either a uniform width throughout, or is somewhat narrower towards the middle, widening at the ends in the shape of a trapezium or spade. A small cross is generally sewed or embroidered on the stole at both ends and in the middle; the cross, however, is prescribed only for the middle, where the priest kisses the stole before putting it on. There are no express precepts concerning the material of the stole, but silk, or at least a halfsilk fabric, is most appropriate. Stoles for festivals are generally ornamented with embroidery, especially what are called "vesper stoles"."
"The giving of the stole to the candidate at ordination in Rome was intended to convey a double symbolism; first, that the elevation to the clergy of the Roman Church occurred de benedictione S. Petri, and secondly that by ordination the candidate entered the service of St. Peter, that is of the Roman Church."
"The origin of the Stole is pre-Christian but since the sixth Century it has been prescribed to be worn by all clergy. In the seventh Century the Orarium, or Stole, was worn by all ministers celebrating worship services and was worn crossed over the alb, secured in place by the girdle. When worn by a deacon, the modern Stole is nearest to its original form, resting on the left shoulder, symbolic of the towel or napkin from which it evolved, and under the right arm leaving the right side free of encumbrance to attend to Sacramental duties.. The Stole is the symbol of the Preacher. It is thinner in width than the tippet."
surplice: a loose, full-sleeved white vestment, worn over the cassock as part of the customary dress of a priest. This is the most basic vestment which belongs to all grades of ordination.
"Without doubt it was originally merely a choir vestment and a garment to be worn at processions, burials, and on similar occasions."
"A large-sleeved tunic of half-length, made of fine linen or cotton, and worn by all the clergy. The wide sleeves distinguish it from the rochet and the alb; it differs from the alb inasmuch as it is shorter and is never girded. It is shorter and is never girded. It is ornamented at the hem and the sleeves either with embroidery, with lace-like insertions, or with lace. The lace should never be more than fifteen inches wide, as otherwise the real vestment is necessarily too much shortened by this merely ornamental addition. The surplice belongs to the liturgical vestment in the strict sense, and is the vestment most used. It is the choir dress, the vestment for processions, the official priestly dress of the lower clergy, the vestment worn by the priest in administering the sacraments, when giving blessings, at Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, etc.; in the last-mentioned cases it is the substitute for the alb, which, according to present custom, is worn only at Mass and a few other functions."
tunicle: a short vestment like the dalmatic worn at Mass by a subdeacon over the alb, or by a bishop between the alb and dalmatic
zuchetto - "The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is pileolus; other designations are: berettino, calotte, subbiretum (because worn under the biretta), submitrale (because worn under the mitre), soli-deo. The pope's zucchetto is white, that of the cardinals red,. The pileolus of the bishops is violet, that of other ecclesiastics, including the prelates, unless a special privilege to wear violet is granted, black.
Bishops and cardinals wear it at Mass, except during the Canon; other ecclesiastics may not wear it at Mass without special papal permission. However, according to a decision of the Sacred Congregation of Rites (23 September, 1837), a bishop also may not wear it while giving Benediction. It cannot be said positively when the zucchetto became customary, but it was probably not before the thirteenth century."
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I, Copyright © 1907
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV, Copyright © 1908
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX, Copyright © 1910
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III, Copyright © 1908
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII, Copyright © 1912
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV, Copyright © 1912
fascia: The fascia is the familiar sash with fringe used with both choir dress and abito piano . It is white watered silk for the Pope, scarlet watered silk for a cardinal, violet silk for a bishop, violet faille for a protonotary apostolic or prelate of honor of His Holiness, purple faille for a chaplain of His Holiness, and black faille for a seminarian, deacon, or priest.
The fascia was originally worn because of the loose-fitting nature of the cassock, functioning as a cincture, and was required for use with the cassock by Pope Urban VIII in 1624.
fanon: "A shoulder-cape worn by the pope alone, consisting of two pieces of white silk ornamented with narrow woven stripes of red and gold; the pieces are nearly circular in shape but somewhat unequal in size and the smaller is laid on and fastened to the larger one. To allow the head to pass through there is made in the middle a round opening with a vertical slit running down farther. The front part of the fanon is ornamented with a small cross embroidered in gold.
The fanon is like an amice; it is, however, put on not under but above the alb. The pope wears it only when celebrating a solemn pontifical Mass, that is, only when all the pontifical vestments are used. The manner of putting on the fanon recalls the method of assuming the amice universal in the Middle Ages and still observed by some of the older orders (see AMICE). After the deacon has vested the pope with the usual amice, alb, the cingulum and sub-cinctorium, and the pectoral cross, he draws on, by means of the opening, the fanon and then turns the half of the upper piece towards the back over the pope's head. He now vests the pope with the stole, tunicle, dalmatic, and chasuble, then turns down that part of the fanon which had been placed over the head of the pope, draws the front half of the upper piece above the tunicle, dalmatic, and chasuble, and finally arranges the whole upper piece of the fanon so that it covers the shoulders of the pope like a collar."
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V, Copyright © 1909
subcinctorium: "Very similar to the maniple in form and nature is the subcinctorium, an ornamental vestment reserved to the pope. It is worn on the cincture; on one end is embroidered a small Agnus Dei and on the other a cross. The pope wears it only at a solemn pontifical Mass. . . . In the Middle Ages it was worn not only by the pope but also by bishops, and even in a few places by priests. However, it gradually ceased to be a customary vestment of bishops and priests, and in the sixteenth century only the popes and the bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Milan wore it. The original object of the subcinctorium was, as St. Thomas explicitly says, to secure the stole to the cincture. But as early as about the close of the thirteenth century, it was merely an ornamental vestment. According to the inventories, even in the eleventh century much thought was given to its ornamentation."
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX, Copyright © 1910
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09601b.htm (emphasis ours)
"Besides the vestments worn by the clergy there are various other articles of clothing worn by ecclesiastics which are not, it is true, designated as vestes sacrae, but which, nevertheless, in a general sense can be included among the liturgical vestments. Thus, in the Latin Rite, there are the cappa magna, the amess, the mozetta, the rochet, the biretta; in the Greek Rite the mandyas (mantle) of the bishops, and the biretta-like covering for the head called kamelaukion, which, when worn by monks or bishops, has a veil called exokamelaukion."
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV, Copyright © 1912
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15388a.htm (emphasis ours)
pontificals: "The collective name given for convenience sake to those insignia of the episcopal order which of right are worn by bishops alone. In its broader sense the term may be taken to include all the items of attire proper to bishops, even those belonging to their civil or choir dress, for example the cappa magna, or the hat with its green cord and lining. But more strictly and accurately, rubricians limit the pontificals to those ornaments which a prelate wears in celebrating pontifically."
"The practice of conceding the use of certain of the pontificals to prelates of inferior rank is one of ancient date. A grant of dalmatic and sandals to the Abbot of Metz is recorded in the year 970 (Jaffé, "Regesta" 374). In the eleventh century Pope Leo IX granted the use of the mitre to the Canons of Besan on and of Bamberg (Jaffé, 4249 and 4293). The earliest known concession of the mitre to the ruler of a monastic house is that made to Abbot Egelsinus of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, in 1603. At a somewhat later date the grants of pontifical insignia to monastic superiors and other prelates are of constant occurrence in the papal "Regesta". To obtain such distinctions became a point of rivalry among all the greater abbeys, the more so that such concessions were by no means always made in the same form or with the same amplitude, while subsequent indults often extended the terms of previous grants."
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII, Copyright © 1911
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12231b.htm (emphasis ours)
"Some canons, however, were privileged to wear the rochet or close-fitting surplice of a prelate. In the Roman Church the rochet had fitted sleeves and also a silk lining of the same color as the wearer's cassock behind the lace of the cuffs. Distinguished chapters of canons privileged to wear the "cappa magna" in winter wear it over the rochet. In summer, if they enjoy no other special privilege, they cover their rochet with a cotta, which is but a diminutive of the surplice.
This last practice perhaps explains the curious privilege conceded by Leo XIII to the canons of the cathedral of his native Perugia. They were privileged to wear two surplices at one time. Presumably they in fact wore a cotta over a surplice and this gave them a certain precedence after those canons privileged to wear the cotta or surplice over their rochet and above those canons who wore only a cotta or surplice over their cassock."
"Distinguished chapters of canons were conceded the use of the "cappa magna", the long, poncho-like, violet, woollen garment covering the torso and equipped with an ermine cape."
"The amess was the hood with shoulder cape with which canons were wont to cover their heads and shoulders during their long choral offices. Usually of woollen cloth and often lined with fur for added warmth, over time the amess became conventionalized in the form of a fur scarf. For most canons it was a scarf of grey fur worn over the left arm."
The Catholic Resource Network
http://www.ewtn.com/library/LITURGY/HERALD2.TXT (emphasis ours)
"The cappa magna, now worn according to Roman usage by cardinals, bishops, and certain specially privileged prelates on occasions of ceremony, is not strictly a liturgical vestment, but is only a glorified cappa choralis, or choir cope. Its colour for cardinals is ordinarily red, and for bishops violet. It is ample in volume and provided with a long train and a disproportionately large hood, the lining of which last, ermine in winter and silk in summer, is made to show like a tippet across the breast"
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV, Copyright © 1908
" . . . the shoulder-cape or mozetta, which is round in front and terminates in a point at the back."
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI, Copyright © 1909
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06281a.htm (emphasis ours)
" . . . a short black mantle (mozetta) . . ."
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV, Copyright © 1908
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04516a.htm (emphasis ours)
"For Roman Catholic canons the mozzetta seems the more favored choir vestment today. Just as the surplice, rochet and cotta are diminutives of the alb, so the mozzetta with the tippet are descended from the amess, the mozzetta being the shoulder portion of that hood cum shoulder cape. At first canons wore the mozzetta only as a substitute-usually in spring and fall-for the heavier woolen "cappa". Today the distinguished metropolitan cathedral chapters of Quebec and Westminster enjoy the use of a violet mozzetta. In general, since the French revolution the mozzetta has tended to supercede the amess, but Barbier de Montault, the distinguished nineteenth-century writer on liturgical law, noted with horror that the canons of Amiens wore both amess and mozzetta! In 1970, episcopal conferences were given the faculty to reform the choir dress of canons. The reformed choir dress was to be a grey or black mozzetta trimmed with violet. In 1987, a violet mozetta was added to the approved list as well."
The Catholic Resource Network
http://www.ewtn.com/library/LITURGY/HERALD2.TXT (emphasis ours)
biretta: "A square cap with three ridges or peaks on its upper surface, worn by clerics of all grades from cardinals downwards. The use of such a cap is prescribed by the rubrics both at solemn Mass and in other ecclesiastical functions."
"At first the birettum was a kind of skull-cap with a small tuft, but it developed into a soft round cap easily indented by the fingers in putting it on and off, and it acquired in this way the rudimentary outline of its present three peaks. . . . The privilege of wearing some such head-dress was extended in the course of the sixteenth century to the lower grades of the clergy, and after a while the chief distinction became one of colour, the cardinals always wearing red birettas, and bishops violet. The shape during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was everywhere considerably modified, and, though the question is very complicated, there seems no good reason to reject the identification, proposed by several modern writers, of the old doctor's birettum with the square college cap, popularly known as the "mortar-board", of the modern English universities. The college cap and ecclesiastical biretta have probably developed from the same original, but along different lines. Even at the present day birettas vary considerably in shape. Those worn by the French, German, and Spanish clergy as a rule have four peaks instead of three; while Roman custom prescribes that a cardinal's biretta should have no tassel. . . . . It may be said in general that the biretta is worn in processions and when seated, as also when the priest is performing any act of jurisdiction, e. g. reconciling a convert. It was formerly the rule that a priest should always wear it in giving absolution in confession, and it is probable that the ancient usage which requires an English judge assume the "black cap" in pronouncing sentence of death is of identical origin."
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II, Copyright © 1907
"Mention should be made of the former armorial use of the biretta. As early as the sixteenth century Jean de Saint Andre, canon of Notre Dame de Paris, placed a biretta on the fulled-faced helmet atop his armorial shield. This would have been the plain black biretta of a simple priest unless the armiger enjoyed some special privilege. But many canons were so privileged. The canons of Loretto basilica in 1882 got a violet tassel on their birettas and numerous chapters were privileged to wear the choir dress of the various grades of prelates of the pontifical household. The canons of Florence, Padua, Venice, Bologna, Estergom and Malta could dress like protonotaries apostolic and thus use a red tassel on their birettas. The canons of the primatial cathedral of Pisa had the dress of a domestic prelate and so could adorn their birettas with a violet tassel."
The Catholic Resource Network
http://www.ewtn.com/library/LITURGY/HERALD2.TXT (emphasis ours)
This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The "Cæremoniale Romanum (l. I, c. x, n. 5) requires that it should be of silk. The edges are usually fringed, while a cross, with the name "Jesus", or some other representation adorns the centre. Humeral veils for use on festivals are often richly embroidered. To prevent too rapid wearing out by usage, pockets or flaps (wings) are provided well under the lower edges, towards the ends. These are then used instead of the veil itself to hold the object which is to be covered by the latter. Flaps (wings) are not advisable; but there can be no serious objection to pockets. The humeral veil is worn so as to cover the back and shoulders -- hence its name -- and its two ends hang down in front. To prevent its falling from the shoulders, it is fastened across the breast with clasps or ribbons attached to the border. The humeral veil is used:
- at solemn high Mass, by the subdeacon, who holds the paten with it from the close of the Offertory until after the Pater Noster ("Ritus celebr.", vii, 9, in "Missale Rom." ; "Cærem. Episc." 1. I, c. x, n. 6; II, viii, 60);
- at a pontifical Mass, by the acolyte, who bears the bishop's mitre, unless he be wearing the cope (Cæremon. Epis., I, xi, 6);
- by the priest or bishop in processions of the Blessed Sacrament, in giving Benediction, in carrying the Host to its repository on Holy Thursday, and bringing it back to the altar on Good Friday, and finally in taking the Viaticum to the sick (see rit. for Fer. V. in Coena Domini, and Fer. VI. in Parasceve, in "Miss. Rom."; "Cæremon. episc.", 1. II, c. xxiii, n. 11, 13; xxv, 31, 32; xxxiii, 27; "Rituale Rom.", Tit. IV, c. iv, n. 9; v, 3).
In processions of the Blessed Sacrament, and at Benediction given with the ostensorium, only the hands are placed under the humeral veil; in other cases it covers the sacred vessel which contains the Host. In the cases mentioned under the third heading the humeral veil must always be white. No specific colour is prescribed in the case: of the mitre-bearer but the veil worn by the subdeacon who bears the paten must be of the same colour as the other vestments.
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII, Copyright © 1910
"The initial vestment which the cleric puts on for celebrating the Mass is the amice, an oblong piece of white linen hung around the neck. Worn as a protection against staining the rest of the vestments, the amice derives from the Roman amictus, a kerchief draped around the neck and shoulders in the manner of a shawl.
The alb or tunica alba (white tunic), the second garment donned by the celebrant, is a tight-sleeved tunic of white linen that reaches from the neck to the ankles and is cinctured, or belted, about the waist. It originates from the Greek chiton and the Roman tunica talaris (ankle tunic).
The third vestment is the stole, a narrow, embroidered strip of cloth worn about the neck over the alb, crossed over the breast, and secured at the waist by a cord. The Roman sudarium, a type of handkerchief for wiping the face and nose, evolved into the stole. The Romans were accustomed to carrying the sudarium in the hand, around the neck, or in the sinus of the toga.
The maniple, the fourth unit of liturgical dress, is a narrow strip or band of silk worn over the alb on the left arm and is the same color as the stole. Related in origin to the amice and stole, the maniple derives from the mappa, a handkerchief used by the Greeks and Romans for wiping the mouth and hands after dining.
The fifth garment, the tunicle (smaller tunic), is worn over the alb but is shorter. Like the alb, it derived from the Greek chiton and the Roman tunica talaris.
The dalmatic, a long-sleeved, outer tunic worn over the alb and tunicle, is the sixth vestment of the cleric's wardrobe. Shaped like a cross, the dalmatic has slits up the sides and is shorter than the tunicle. As its name implies, the dalmatic derives directly from the tunica dalmatica, the robe favored by the emperor Heliogabalus because it brought to mind the fashions of his native Dalmatia.
The seventh and final garment in the process of vesting is the chasuble, worn over the dalmatic and often adorned with elaborate embroidery. The chasuble traces its origin to the Roman paenula or casula, semi-circular cloaks that enveloped the figure and hung well below the calves.
It should be noted that the paenula or casula also engendered the cope, a richly embroidered, floor-length cape sometimes worn by a minister for solemn liturgical occasions other than the mass.
The Roman pallium, a shawl draped around the shoulders, evolved into a special insignia of the same name for bishops. The liturgical pallium is a narrow band that encircles the shoulders with pendant strips in the front and back. Bishops also wear as headdress a miter that derives from the Greek pilos."
http://www.cin.org/archives/cinroman/199811/0070.html (emphasis ours)
For all Clerics:
Cappa - The cappa is the cape used by clerics, usually with a shoulder-cape attached. It is made of black wool for all clerics but the Pope, who alone uses the red cappa with gold trim. The cappa in its present form was merely adopted from the general Roman secular fashion. The type of cape allowable for clerics was set in 1832.
Cappello romano - The pontifical hat is the cappello romano, which has a wide, circular brim with a rounded rim. It is made of either black beaver fur or felt, and lined in white silk. The lining may match the rank of the cleric, however: scarlet for a cardinal, violet for a bishop, black for a priest, deacon, or seminarian. Cords adorne the cappelli of the episcopate: red and gold for a cardinal, green and gold for a bishop. The Pope makes use of a red cappello with gold cords.This style of hat became the common headgear for all clerics early in the Church's history. Today, it is mainly seen in Rome.
Douillette - The douillette (or greca or cappotto) is a long, loose-fitting, double-breasted cloak worn over the cassock or simar by all clerics. It is white for the Pope, but black for all other clerics. The douillette came into the Roman Church through France, but was originally employed in the East, where it was known as the greca. It was adapted from civil wear for the clergy in 1812, and has changed little since.
Gloves - Gloves used by clerics must always be black, and are not used during a liturgical celebration. The master of ceremonies alone may make use of white gloves, and is the only one allowed gloves while vested in choir. The Pope, of course, also uses white.
Soprana - The soprana is a black wool cloak worn by any cleric, but most notably by Roman seminarians. It is rarely seen outside of Rome today. This cloak originated in the seminaries of Rome, and used to include colored silk trim and facings, which were specific to each seminary.
For a Judge of the Roman Rota (court of appeals):
Crocia The crocia is a cloak worn today only by the judges of the Roman Rota, the Church's court of appeals. It is violet wool with amaranth-red silk trim and an ermine collar. Prior to 1969, the crocia was worn by all those prelates entitled to the mantellone (which is now abolished) when they were sent as special emissaries of the Pope, such as the bestowal of a major papal award.
For a Protonotary Apostolic de Numero (official keeper of canonization records and signatory to papal bull.):
Mantelletta The mantelletta, while formerly worn by all bishops and some of the monsignori , is now only used by the seven protonotaries apostolic de numero. It is a short, violet mantle with slits for the arms, worn over the rochet and choir cassock.
For the Pope:
Camauro, (hat) "The camauro is the white fur-trimmed red bonnet reserved to Popes in place of the biretta. No Pope since John XXIII (d. 1963) has used it. The camauro, like the biretta, evolved from the academic cap of the Middle Ages. Unlike the biretta, however, it did not evolve much. The camauro in its present form was established by the twelfth century."
Triregno "The triregno, or Papal tiara, is the triple crown reserved to Popes. No Pope since Paul VI (d. 1978) has been crowned with it, and no Pope since John XXIII (d. 1963) has made use of it. The tiara developed from the mitre. The three crowns are symbolic of the Pope's three-fold powers: potestas magisterii, potestas regimini, and potestas ministerii." [teaching, sanctifying, governing]
So what is our point?
Simply to point out how easy it is to get distracted with "stuff". Stuff that takes time, study, effort, and money, all of which could be used more profitably and more effectively in so many other ways. It seems to be a law of organizations that, the bigger the corporation, the more the means becomes an end in itself, while the original or alleged purpose becomes a meaningless slogan, a thoughtless chant in a mechanical ritual.
"Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what you shall eat, or what you shall drink; nor yet for your body, what you shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?" (Mat. 6:25).
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