Capital of Kurdistan
Erbil City

History of Erbil

Erbil is most ancient city down the history. Man first settled
in Erbil in the form of an agricultural village (6000) years B.C.
It's common known among historians that Erbil dates back to
(2500) B.C. It is full of underground water. Since enemies
were not capable of ruining these water sources, people were
able to always live in the city of Erbil.

Now the name of this city is ( Hawler) or (Erbil). However,
the root of this name dates back to the most ancient origin
which is the records of Third Ur Kings (2112-2004) B.C.
referred to as ( Erbaillo) meaning (four Gods).
In Brief, Erbil before Islam passed through the periods below:

  1. Sumerian Period
  2. Assyrian Period
  3. Persian Period
  4. Perthian Period
  5. Sassanian Period

Besides, Erbil before Islam embraced the principalities below:

  1. Hazbanians Principality
  2. Baktakenjans Principality
  3. Mazinjani Principality
  4. Kuridsh Dilkendi Principality
  5. Soran Dilkendi Principality

  6. Erbil Historians' Names:
    In the Islamic History some Erbil famous historians emerged;
    their names are listed below:
    1- Ibn Khelekan:
    He was renowned in Islamic Jurisprudence, History and Language.
    His most famous book is (Waffiyat Al- A'yan).
    2- Ibn Al-Mustawfi:
    He was well versed in Islamic Jurisprudence, language,
    Military Sciences, Poetical Works. His most well- Known
    book is (Erbil History ) in four volumes.
    3- Ibn Al- Younis-Al- Erbili:
    He was renowned in Mathematics, Islamic Jurisprudence,
    Logic, Medicine.
    4- Ibn Fakhr- Al -Erbili:
    He was famous in poetry. His most well- known book is
    (Risalet Attayf) and ( Kashf Al- Ghumma Fee Me'rifet Al- Umma).
    5- Ibn Selah Al- Shahrazouri:
    He was renowned in Tafseer & Hedeeth. His most famous book
    is ( Muqaddimet Ibn Selah) in Hedeeth.
    6- Prince Husam Al- Din:
    He was one of the commanders of ( SalahaddinAl- Ayyoubi)
    taking part in the wars against the Crusaders.
    7- Hasan Ibn Muhammed Al- Erbili:
    He was a poet and philosopher.
    8- Ibraheem Heyderi
    9- Abu Bekr Fendi

    Ancient Archaeological sites in Erbil

    Erbil has about (636) ancient archaeological sites.
    The most important are as below:
    1- Erbil Castle: It lies in the middle of Erbil on which
    the city has been established for centuries.
    The castle cuniform historical texts date back to
    the remains or Assyrian. Erbil Castle was surrounded
    by walls in the Atabegian Period (1102-1210) B.C.
    Its area is (60000m), (45m) high and its diameter is (364m).
    2- Choly Minaret ( Al- Mudhafferiya Minaret):
    It locates to the west of Erbil which was originally
    a mosque. Its name is after (Mudhaffer Al- Deen Kokberi).
    It's (37) m high and dates back to (1123-1163 A.D.).

    Erbil Governorate

    Erbil became a governorate on 1st April 1923 according to Act
    No. 5307 issued by the Iraqi Ministry of Interior. So,
    it became the Governorate of Erbil and was sparated from (Kirkuk).
    Location: the city of Erbil is (80) km to the east of the city of Mosul,
    (90) km to the south of Kirkuk (196) km of Sulaimanyia and (156) km
    of Duhok. It lies on Latitude Circles from the north and (2nd, 42nd)
    parallels from the east.
    The area of Erbil Governorate is approximately (16,484 km).
    Agriculture in Erbil:




    Erbil lies equally between the two rivers known as (Zab) having
    a great agricultural lands in Erbil is as shown Below:

    1. Cultivated Area: 1181650
    2. Rain- irrigation Area: 1547242
    3. Natural Forests Area: 1116500
    4. Superficial Forests Area: 16854
    5. Mountainous Area: 2692366

    Tourist Sites of Erbil:

    There are several tourist sites in Erbil people resort to over the year:
    1- Salahaddin Resort: It's (1090) m above the sea level.
    2- Seri Rush: It's (8) km of Salahaddin Resort.
    It's a tourist village lying on a mountain top, with (1700) m
    above the sea level and very cool in summer.
    3- Town of Shaqlawa:
    It's to the south of Salahaddin being (996) m above sea level.
    It is renowned for its woods.
    4- There are several tourist sites on the (Hamilton) Road, (210)
    Connecting Kurdistan with Iran, like:
    Hareer, Khalifan, Shellal Geli Ali Beg, Jundiyan, Bekhal,
    Rawanduz, Choman and Rayat Haji Umaran.
    Most of these areas surrounded by Kurdistan high mountains

    Importance of Erbil

    Erbil is a strategic place having great importance for Iraqi Kurdistan Region for the grounds below:
    1- Having many ancient arechaeologies.
    2- Being in the middle of Iraqi Kurdistan. It connects the three Governorates (Sulaimanyia, Duhok, Kirkuk)
    by means of trade.
    3- Having large agricultural area.
    4- Having many tourist archaeological sites.
    5- Being the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan Region.
    6- Embracing Iraqi Kurdistan Region National Assembly Office;
    Regional Government Head Offices and location of all ministries.
    7- Embracing International NGOs & UN Agencies offering services
    to the area and having Einkawa as a base.
    8- Having most of Iraqi, Kurdish, Turkish, Assyrian and Islamic
    Political Parties, headquarters.
    9- Having many trade union and popular organizations, like:
    (teachers, engineers, farmers, doctors, jurists, workers, women,
    civil servants, students, artists and journalists).
    10- Having Salahaddin University with all Colleges, Technical
    Institutes, Teachers Central Institute and Fine Arts Institute.
    11- Having many Educational Institute, like:
    Sport, Primary, Intermediate, Preparatory and Vocational studies.
    12- Having many cultural buildings, like Shown Hall, Cinema Hall,
    Meeting Halls. Public and Private Libraries along with many daily,
    weekly, monthly newspapers and magazines in different languages like:
    ( Kurdish, Arabic, Turkish, Assyrian as well as English).
    13- Having many factories, like:
    Poultry, Dairy, Cigarettes, Marble, Animal Feed and Fodder, Carpets and Textile) factories.
    14- Having many health offices in the General and Private Hospitals, doctors' clinics,
    medicines stores and pharmacies.
    15- Having several TV and Radio stations that broadcast
    various programmes. These stations belong to the political parties.
    16- Having many agricultural, irrigational and research offices.
    17- Having many services offices, like Municipality, Traffic, Water, Electric Power, Sewage,
    Roads, Housing, Post, Telegraph and Telephone.
    18- Having several banks, like: ( Central; Rasheed; Rafidain; Real-estate and Agricultural) Banks.
    19- Several markets for various things and services.
    20- Several public gardens, Luna Parks and sports and celebrational fields.




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