Erbil is most ancient city down the history. Man first settled
in Erbil in the form of an agricultural village (6000) years B.C.
It's common known among historians that Erbil dates back to
(2500) B.C. It is full of underground water. Since enemies
were not capable of ruining these water sources, people were
able to always live in the city of Erbil.
Now the name of this city is ( Hawler) or (Erbil). However,
the root of this name dates back to the most ancient origin
which is the records of Third Ur Kings (2112-2004) B.C.
referred to as ( Erbaillo) meaning (four Gods).
In Brief, Erbil before Islam passed through the periods below:
Besides, Erbil before Islam embraced the principalities below:
Erbil Historians' Names:
In the Islamic History some Erbil famous historians emerged;
their names are listed below:
1- Ibn Khelekan:
He was renowned in Islamic Jurisprudence, History and Language.
His most famous book is (Waffiyat Al- A'yan).
2- Ibn Al-Mustawfi:
He was well versed in Islamic Jurisprudence, language,
Military Sciences, Poetical Works. His most well- Known
book is (Erbil History ) in four volumes.
3- Ibn Al- Younis-Al- Erbili:
He was renowned in Mathematics, Islamic Jurisprudence,
4- Ibn Fakhr- Al -Erbili:
He was famous in poetry. His most well- known book is
(Risalet Attayf) and ( Kashf Al- Ghumma Fee Me'rifet Al- Umma).
5- Ibn Selah Al- Shahrazouri:
He was renowned in Tafseer & Hedeeth. His most famous book
is ( Muqaddimet Ibn Selah) in Hedeeth.
6- Prince Husam Al- Din:
He was one of the commanders of ( SalahaddinAl- Ayyoubi)
taking part in the wars against the Crusaders.
7- Hasan Ibn Muhammed Al- Erbili:
He was a poet and philosopher.
8- Ibraheem Heyderi
9- Abu Bekr Fendi
Erbil has about (636) ancient archaeological sites.
Erbil became a governorate on 1st April 1923 according to Act
Erbil lies equally between the two rivers known as (Zab) having
There are several tourist sites in Erbil people resort to over the year:
Erbil is a strategic place having great importance for Iraqi Kurdistan Region for the grounds below:
1- Having many ancient arechaeologies.
2- Being in the middle of Iraqi Kurdistan. It connects the three Governorates (Sulaimanyia, Duhok, Kirkuk)
by means of trade.
3- Having large agricultural area.
4- Having many tourist archaeological sites.
5- Being the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan Region.
6- Embracing Iraqi Kurdistan Region National Assembly Office;
Regional Government Head Offices and location of all ministries.
7- Embracing International NGOs & UN Agencies offering services
to the area and having Einkawa as a base.
8- Having most of Iraqi, Kurdish, Turkish, Assyrian and Islamic
Political Parties, headquarters.
9- Having many trade union and popular organizations, like:
(teachers, engineers, farmers, doctors, jurists, workers, women,
civil servants, students, artists and journalists).
10- Having Salahaddin University with all Colleges, Technical
Institutes, Teachers Central Institute and Fine Arts Institute.
11- Having many Educational Institute, like:
Sport, Primary, Intermediate, Preparatory and Vocational studies.
12- Having many cultural buildings, like Shown Hall, Cinema Hall,
Meeting Halls. Public and Private Libraries along with many daily,
weekly, monthly newspapers and magazines in different languages like:
( Kurdish, Arabic, Turkish, Assyrian as well as English).
13- Having many factories, like:
Poultry, Dairy, Cigarettes, Marble, Animal Feed and Fodder, Carpets and Textile) factories.
14- Having many health offices in the General and Private Hospitals, doctors' clinics,
medicines stores and pharmacies.
15- Having several TV and Radio stations that broadcast
various programmes. These stations belong to the political parties.
16- Having many agricultural, irrigational and research offices.
17- Having many services offices, like Municipality, Traffic, Water, Electric Power, Sewage,
Roads, Housing, Post, Telegraph and Telephone.
18- Having several banks, like: ( Central; Rasheed; Rafidain; Real-estate and Agricultural) Banks.
19- Several markets for various things and services.
20- Several public gardens, Luna Parks and sports and celebrational fields.