OLD WESTMORELAND:

HISTORY of WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA

DURING the REVOLUTION

By Edgar W. Hassler

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Part I: Chapters 1-14

Part II: Chapters 15-28
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I.

OLD WESTMORELAND.--- Its Erection as a County. ---Boundaries and Area. ---Sources of Settlement. ---Territorial Conflict with Virginia. ---Early Centers of Population. ---The Men of Ulster. ---Pittsburg. ---Leaders Among the Pioneers ...(Pages 5-10)
CHAPTER II.

THE OUTBREAK OF THE REVOLUTION. ---Delegates Sent to the Provincial Convention of 1774. ---Sympathy with Boston. ---Royalist Efforts of John Connolly. ---Patriot Meeting at Pittsburg. ---Association of Westmoreland Formed at Hannastown. ---Military Organization. ---The Rattlesnake Flag. ---Ft. Pitt Occupied by Virginia Militia. --(Pages 11-17)
CHAPTER III.

WILLIAM WILSON'S INDIAN TOUR. ---The Savage Menace to the Frontier. ---Ft. Pitt Treaty in October, 1775. ---Iroquois Hostility. ---George Morgan, Indian Agent. ---Wilson Sent as a Peace Messenger to the Ohio Tribes. ---His Peril at Pluggystown. ---Before Governor Hamilton at Detroit. ---The Unvailing Treaty at Ft. Pitt, October 1776. ---(Pages 18-23)
CHAPTER IV.

CAPTURE OF ANDREW McFARLANE. ---First Indian Depredations. ---McFarlane's History. ---A Prisoner of the Virginians. ---Love Romance and Marriage. ---A Trader at Kittanning. ---Without Military Protection. ---The Tradition of the Lewis Family. ---McFarlane Taken Prisoner. ---His Captivity and Release. ---(Pages 24-30)
CHAPTER V.

GIBSON'S POWDER EXPLOIT. ---Scarcity of Ammunition on the Frontier. ---George Gibson and William Linn. ---The Lambs. ---Journey to New Orleans. ---Oliver Pollock. ---Gibson in a Spanish Prison. ---Return by Sea and River. ---(Pages 31-36)
CHAPTER VI.

THE SQUAW CAMPAIGN. ---Congress Takes Charge of the Frontier Defense. ---Brigadier General Edward Hand Appointed Commander at Ft. Pitt. ---Indian Raiders from Detroit. ---Depredations in Westmoreland. ---Expedition Up the Mahoning Valley. ---Hand's Disappointment and Resignation. ---(Pages 37-43)
CHAPTER VII.

FLIGHT OF THE PITTSBURG TORIES. ---British Agents in Western Pennsylvania. ---Captain Alexander McKee. ---Matthew Elliott. ---Escape from McKees Rocks. ---Simon Girty. ---Renegades in Coshocton. ---Baffled by White Eyes. ---Welcomed at Detroit. ---Traitors in the Ft. Pitt Garrison. ---Their light, Recapture and Punishment. ---(Pages 44-48)
CHAPTER VIII.

THE TORIES OF SINKING VALLEY. ---The Spy Among the Mountaineers. ---Conspiracy for Murder and Spoliation. ---John Weston. ---Panic on the Juniata. ---The Flight to Kittanning. ---Fate of the Tory Leader. ---Dispersal of the Plotters. ---(Pages 49-53)
CHAPTER IX.

FATAL VOYAGE OF DAVID RODGERS. ---Second Effort to Procure Powder from the Spaniards. ---Captain David Rodgers. ---His Redstone Company. ---Time Lost on the Mississippi. ---The Surprise at the Licking River. ---Rodgers Mortally Wounded. ---Singular Experience of Robert Benham and Basil Brown. ---(Pages 54-59)
CHAPTER X.

THE EIGHTH PENNSYLVANIA. ---Brigadier General Lachlan McIntosh Ordered to Ft. Pitt. ---His Two Border Regiments. ---Mackay's Battalion. ---The Winter. ---March Over the Mountains. ---Fatalies Among the Officers and Privates. ---Daniel Brodhead Colonel. ---Morgan's Rifle Corps. ---Thirteenth Virginia. ---(Pages 60-66)
CHAPTER XI.

BACK TO THE HARRIED FRONTIER. ---March of the Regulars for Ft. Pitt. ---The Big Runaway. ---The Massacre at Wyoming. ---Eighth Pennsylvania Sent Up the Susquehanna. ---Captain John Brady's Fort at Muncy. ---The Killing of James Brady. ---Samuel Brady, the Rifleman.---The Eighth at Ft. Pitt.---(Pages 67-72)
CHAPTER XII.

THE ALLIANCE WITH THE DELAWARES.---McIntosh's Design Against Detroit.---Seeking Indian Allies.---The Ft. Pitt Treaty with the Delawares.---White Eyes.---Proposal for an Indian State.---(Pages 73-79)
CHAPTER XIII.

FORT LAURENS.---McIntosh Advances Westward.---Ft. McIntosh.---death of White Eyes.---Building of Ft. Laurens.--A Winter in the Wilderness.---Colonel Gibson Besieged.---Captain Bird and Simon Girty.---Ft. Laurens Relieved.---Resignation of McIntosh.---Colonel Brodhead in Command.---Ft. Laurens Deserted.---(Pages 80-87)
CHAPTER XIV.

SAMUEL BRADY'S REVENGE.---Incursions from the North.---Military Scouts.---Brady Hears of His Father's Death. ---Attack on Ft. Hand. ---Raid on the Sewickley Settlement. ---Brady on the Trail. ---Indians Surprised in Their Camp. ---Death of the Muncy Captain. ---(Pages 88-94)
CHAPTER XV.

BRODHEAD'S RAID UP THE ALLEGHENY. ---The Hostile Senecas. ---Sullivan's Expedition. ---Brodhead's Co-operation. ---Difficult March Up the Allegheny. ---Fight with the Indians. ---Devastation of Seneca Cornfields. ---Muncy Village Destroyed. ---Return by the Venango Path. ---Thanks of Congress. ---(Pages 95-101)
CHAPTER XVI.

THE WINTER OF THE DEEP SNOW. ---Influence of Weather on the Frontier. ---Severest Winter on Record. ---Suffering on Soldiers. ---Animals and Birds Killed. ---Raids in the Ohio River Settlements by Western Indians. ---Rewards for Scalps and Prisoners. ---Brady's Daring Journey to the Sandusky. --Rescue of Mrs. Stoops. ---(Pages 102-108)
CHAPTER XVII.

THE SUMMER OF THE BIG HARVEST. ---Great Crops of Wheat and Corn, but no Water for the Mills. ---Cattle Scarce. ---Money Depreciation. ---Agitation for a New State. ---Soldiers Suffer for Food. ---On the Verge of Mutiny. ---Brady Sent Out to Impress Live Stock. ---Futile Efforts to Organize an Expedition Into the Indian Country. ---Buffaloes for Food. ---(Pages 109-115)
CHAPTER XVIII.

THE DERRY SETTLEMENT. ---A Typical Ulster Population and Its Leaders. ---The Three Forts. ---Major Campbell and Companions Captured on Blacklick. ---The Unsolved fate of Lieutenant Craig. ---Attack on Ft. Wallace. ---Retaliation by the Borderers. ---Defeat of Captain Hopkins. ---Escape of Ebenezer Finley. ---Major Wilson's Combat Near Ft. Wallace. ---John Pomeroy's Defense of His Cabin. ---(Pages 116-122)
CHAPTER XIX.

THE DESTRUCTION OF COSHOCTON. ---Delawares Join the Hostile League. ---Chief Killbuck Ostracized. ---Brodhead's Expedition. ---Rendezvous at Wheeling. ---Indian Capital Surprised. ---Assault in the Rain. ---Warriors Killed. ---Coshocton Plundered and Burned. ---Kindness of the Moravians.---Chief Killbuck's Stroke. ---The Misrepresentations of Doddridge. ---Migration of the Delawares. ---(Pages 123-130)
CHAPTER XX.

GENERAL CLARK'S DRAFT. ---Design Against Detroit. ---Buying Provisions. ---George Rodgers Clark in Western Pennsylvania. ---Raising Volunteers. ---Factions Among the Settlers. ---Official Approval. ---Help from the Westmoreland Militia. ---Erection of Washington County. ---Efforts to Enforce the Draft. ---Pillage and Personal Violence. ---Small Force Assembled. ---Clark Discouraged but Persistent. ---Failure of His Expedition. ---(Pages 131-138)
CHAPTER XXI.

LOCHRY'S DISASTER. ---Westmoreland Detachment to Aid Clark. ---Rendezvous at Carnaghan's. ---March to Wheeling. ---Left Behind by the Main Body. ---Slow Journey Down the Ohio. ---Loss of Captain Shannon. ---Ambush at Lochry's Run. ---Joseph Brant and His Mohawks. ---Killing of Lochry. ---Entire Party Slain or Taken. ---(Pages 139-145)
CHAPTER XXII.

MORAVIANS AND WYANDOTS. ---Lochry Succeeded as County Lieutenant by Edward Cook. ---Charges Against Brodhead. ---Ordered by Washington to Resign. ---His Successor Brigadier General William Irvine. ---Moravian Missions on the Tuscarawas Broken Up by British and Indians. ---Privations of the Red Converts. ---Sons of the Half-King Raid Washington County. ---Adventure of the Poe Brothers. ---(Pages 146-152)
CHAPTER XXIII.

THE SLAUGHTER AT GNADENHUETTEN. ---Williamson's First Visit to the Tuscarawas. ---Indian Towns Deserted. ---Washington County Raided. ---Mrs. Wallace and Her Children Captured. ---The Escape and Revelations of John Carpenter. ---Williamson's Second Campaign to the Tuscarawas. ---Mutilated Corpses Beside the Trail. ---Rage of the Frontiersmen. ---Moravian's Surprised Gathering Corn. ---Telltale Trophies. ---The Vote for Life or Death. ---Condemnation.---Massacre of the Guilty and the Innocent. ---Indian Villages Burned. ---The Raid on Smoky Island. ---Investigation Thwarted. ---(Pages 153-161)
CHAPTER XXIV.

CRAWFORD'S EXPEDITION AND DEATH. ---Plans for the Destruction of Wyandot Towns on the Sandusky. ---Aid from General Irvine. ---Muster at Mingo. ---Crawford Chosen to Command. ---His Staff and Captains. ---March Into the Wilderness. ---Enemy Forewarned. ---Battle on Sandusky Plain. --Night Retreat and Panic. ---Crawford's Capture. ---Williamson's Retreat. ---Crawford and Others Burned at the Stake. ---(Pages 162-169)
CHAPTER XXV.

THE WOUNDED INDIAN. ---Attack on Walthour's Station. ---Killing of Willard and Daughter. ---The Lame Delaware at Pittsburg. ---His Confession. ---Clamor of the Settlers for His Death. ---Davy Delivered Up. ---His Escape from the Blockhouse. ---The Gray Mare. ---Never Reached Home. ---(Pages 170-175)
CHAPTER XXVI.

THE DESTRUCTION OF HANNASTOWN. ---Savage Inroad from the Seneca Land. ---Guyasuta. ---Escape of the Harvesters. ---Refuge in the Stockade. ---Assault Repelled. ---Death of Margaret Shaw. ---Burning of the Town. ---Raid on Miller's Station. ---Killing of Lieutenant Brownlee and Others. ---The End of Hannastown. ---(Pages 176-181)
CHAPTER XXVII.

THE ABANDONED EXPEDITION. ---Planning Another Campaign Against Sandusky. ---General Irvine to Command. ---Approval by Government. ---Attack on Wheeling. ---Gallant Defense of Rice's Blockhouse. ---Savages Called off by General Carleton. ---Expedition Countermanded by General Washington. ---Clark's Raid on the Shawnee Towns. ---General Thanksgiving Day. ---(Pages 182-188)
CHAPTER XXVIII.

THE PEACE JOURNEY OF EPHRAIM DOUGLASS. ---Isolated Depredations in Washington County. ---Appeal to Congress. ---Douglass Commissioned. ---His Journey to Sandusky. ---Before DePeyster at Detroit. ---Douglass Sent to Niagara. ---Talk with Joseph Brant. ---End of the Border War. ---(Pages 189-194).
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Old Westmoreland: A History of Western Pennsylvania During the Revolution, by Edgar W. Hassler, 1900.
MASTER INDEX